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(?made of one blood? ? Authorized Version). The word to be supplied is possibly ?father,? but more probably ?body? ; cf. <580211>Hebrews 2:11 ? ?for both he that sanctifeth and they that are sanctified are all of one [father or body]: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, In the midst of the congregation will I sing thy praise.?

Winchell, in his Preadamites, has recently revived the theory broached in 1655 by Peyrerius, that there were men before Adam: ?Adam is descended from a black race ? not the black races from Adam.? Adam is simply ?the remotest ancestor to whom the Jews could trace their lineage. The derivation of Adam from an older human stock is essentially the creation of Adam.? Winchell does not deny the unity of the race or the retroactive effect of the atonement upon those who lived before Adam; he simply denies that Adam was the first man. 297 ? He ?regards the Adamic stock as derived from an older and humbler human type,? originally as low in the scale as the present Australian savages.

Although this theory furnishes a plausible explanation of certain Biblical facts, such as the marriage of Cain ( <010417>Genesis 4:17), Cain?s fear that men would slay him ( <010414>Genesis 4:14), and the distinction between ?the sons of God? and ?the daughters of men? ( <010601>Genesis 6:1, 2). it treats the Mosaic narrative as legendary rather than historical. Shem, Ham, and Japheth, it is intimated, may have lived hundreds of years apart from one another (409). Upon this view, Eve could not be ?the mother of all living? ( <010320>Genesis 3:20), nor could the transgression of Adam be the cause and beginning of condemnation to the whole race ( <450512>Romans 5:12, 19). As to Cain?s fear of other families who might take vengeance upon him, we must remember that we do not know how many children were born to Adam between Cain and Abel, what the ages of Cain and Abel were or whether Cain feared only those that were then living. As to Cain?s marriage, we must remember that even if Cain married into another family, his wife, upon any hypothesis of the unity of the race, must have been descended from some other original Cain that married his sister.

See Keil and Delitzsch, Coon, on Pentateuch, 1:116 ? ?The marriage of brothers and sisters was inevitable in the case of children of the first man in case the human race was actually to descend from a single pair. This may therefore be justified in the face of the Mosaic prohibition of such marriages, on the ground that the sons and daughters of Adam represented not merely the family but the genus. It was not till after the rise of several families that the bonds of fraternal and conjugal love became distinct from one another and assumed fixed and mutually exclusive forms, the

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