A. It is impossible to show that the universe, so far as its substance is concerned, has had a beginning. The law of causality declares, not that everything has a cause ? for then God himself must have a cause ? but rather that everything begun has a cause, or in other words, that every event or change has a cause.

Hume, Philos. Works, 2:411 sq., urges with reason that we never saw a world made. Many philosophers in Christian lands, as Martineau, Essays, 1:206, and the prevailing opinions of anti-Christian times, have held matter to be eternal. Bowne, Metaphysics, 107 ? ?For being itself, the reflective reason never asks a cause, unless the being show signs of dependence. It is change that first gives rise to the demand for cause.? Martineau, Types, 1:291 ? ?it is not existence, as such, that demands a cause, but the coming into existence of what did not exist before. The intellectual law of causality is a law for phenomena, and not for entity.? See also McCosh, Intuitions, 225-241; Calderwood, Philos. of Infinite, 61. Per contra, see Murphy, Scient. Bases of Faith, 49, 195, and Habit and Intelligence, 1:55-67; Knight, Lect. on Metaphysics, lect. ii, p. 19.

B. Granting that the universe, so far as its phenomena are concerned, has had a cause, it is impossible to show that any other cause is required than a cause within itself, such as the pantheist supposes.

Flint. Theism, 65 ? ?The cosmological argument alone proves only force, and no mere force is God. Intelligence must go with power to make a Being that can be called God.? Diman, Theistic Argument: ?The cosmological argument alone cannot decide whether the force that causes change is permanent self-existent mind, or permanent self-existent matter.? Only intelligence gives the basis for an answer. Only mind in the universe enables us to infer mind in the maker. But the argument from intelligence is not the Cosmological, but the Teleological, and to this last belong all proofs of Deity from order and combination in nature.

Upton, Hibbert Lectures, 201-296 ? Science has to do with those changes which one portion of the visible universe causes in another portion. Philosophy and theology deal with the Infinite Cause that brings into existence and sustains the entire series of finite causes. Do we ask the cause of the stars? Science says: Fire-mist, or an indefinite regress of causes. Theology says: Granted; but this infinite regress demands for its explanation the belief In God. We must believe both in God, and in an endless series of finite causes. God is the cause of all causes, the soul of all souls: ?Center and soul of every sphere, Yet to each loving heart how

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