Feuerbach, Buchner; and Materialistic Idealism has taken its place, which instead of regarding force as a property of matter, regards matter as a manifestation of force. From this section we therefore pass to Materialistic Idealism, and inquire whether the universe can be interpreted simply as a system of force and of ideas, A quarter of a century ago, John Tyndall, in his opening address as President of the British Association at Belfast, declared that in matter was to be found the promise and potency of every form Of life. But in 1898, Sir William Crookes, in his address as President of that same British Association, reversed the apothegm, and declared that in life he saw the promise and potency of every form of matter. See Lange, History of Materialism; Janet, Materialism; Fabri, Materialismus; Herzog. Encyclopadie, art.: Materialismus; but esp., Stallo, Modern Physics. 148-170.

In addition to the general error indicated above, we object to this system as follows

1. In knowing matter, the mind necessarily judges itself to be different in kind and higher in rank, than the matter, which it knows.

We here state simply an intuitive conviction. The mind, in using its physical organism and through it bringing external nature into its service, recognizes itself as different from and superior to matter. See Martineau, quoted in Brit. Quar., April, 1882:173, and the article of President Thomas Hill in the Bibliotheca Sacra, April, 1852:353 ? ?All that is really given by the act of sense-perception is the existence of the conscious self, floating in boundless space and boundless time, surrounded and sustained by boundless power. The material moved, which we at first think the great reality, is only the shadow of a real being, which is immaterial.? Harris, Philos. Basis of Theism, 317 ? ?Imagine an infinitesimal being in the brain, watching the action of the molecules, but missing the thought. So science observes the universe, but misses God.? Hebberd, in Journ. Spec. Philos., April, 1886:135.

Robert Browning, ?the subtlest assertor of the soul in song,? makes the Pope, in The Ring and the Book, say: ?Mind is not matter, nor from matter, but above.? So President Francis Wayland: ?What is mind?? ?No matter.? ?What is matter?? ?Never mind.? Sully, The Human Mind, 2:369 ? ?Consciousness is a reality wholly disparate from material processes, and cannot therefore be resolved into these. Materialism makes that which is immediately known (our mental states) subordinates to that which is only indirectly or inferentially known (external things). Moreover, a material entity existing per se out of relation to a cogitant

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