text above is from Green, Hebrew Chrestomathy, 67. But E. G. Robinson, Christian Theology, 88, remarks: ?Whether the Scriptures teach the absolute origination of matter ? its creation out of nothing ? is an open question? No decisive evidence is furnished by the Hebrew word bara.?

Professor W. J. Beecher, in S. furnishes a moderate and scholarly statement of the facts S. Times, Dec. 23, 1893:807 ? ?To create is to originate divinely? Creation, in the sense in which the Bible uses the word, does not exclude the use of materials previously existing; for man was taken from the ground ( <010207>Genesis 2:7), and woman was builded from the rib of a man (2:22). Ordinarily God brings things into existence through the operation of second causes. But it is possible, in our thinking, to withdraw attention from the second causes, and to think of anything as originating simply from God, apart from second causes. To think of a thing thus is to think of it as created. The Bible speaks of Israel as created, of the promised prosperity of Jerusalem as created, of the Ammonite people and the king of Tyre as created, of persons of any date in history as created ( <234301>Isaiah 43:1-15; 65:18; <262130>Ezekiel 21:30; 28:13, 15; <19A218>Psalm 102:18; <211201>Ecclesiastes 12:1; <390210>Malachi 2:10). Miracles and the ultimate beginnings of second causes are necessarily thought of as creative acts; all other originating of things may be thought of, according to the purpose we have in mind, either as creation or as effected by second causes.?

(b) In the account of the creation, ar;K; seems to be distinguished from hc;[; to make ?either with or without the use of already existing material ( twv[1l ar;B; ?created in making? or ?made by creation,? in 2:3; and XXX of the firmament, in 1:7), and from r1xy; , ?to form? out of such material. (See ar;byw1 of man regarded as a spiritual being, in 1:27; but rx,yiw1 of man regarded as a physical being, in 2:7.)

See Conant, Genesis, 1; Bible Com., 1:37 ? ??created to make? (in

<010203> Genesis 2:3) = created out of nothing, in order that he might make out of it all the works recorded in the six days.? Over against these texts, however, we must set others in which there appears no accurate distinguishing of these words from one another. Bara is used in

<010101> Genesis 1:1, asah in <010204>Genesis 2:4, of the creation of the heaven and earth. Of earth, both yatzar and asah are used in <234518>Isaiah 45:18. In regard to man, in <010127>Genesis 1:27 we find bara; in <010126>Genesis 1:26 and 9:6, asah; and in <010207>Genesis 2:7, yatzar. In <234307>Isaiah 43:7, all three are found in the same verse: ?whom I have bara for my glory, I have yatzar,

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