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expressing its hatred of sin. But, if it stops with such expression, it is not holiness, but selfishness. If on the other hand that expression of holiness is used or permitted in order that the sinner may be made to hate his sin, then it is no more punishment, but chastisement. On any other hypothesis, penal suffering has no justification except the arbitrary will of the Almighty and such a hypothesis is an impeachment both of his justice and of his love.? This view seems to us to ignore the necessary reaction of divine holiness against sin, to make holiness a mere form of love, a means to an end and that end utilitarian and so to deny to holiness any independent, or even real, existence in the divine nature.

The wrath of God is calm and judicial, devoid of all passion or caprice. It is the expression of eternal and unchangeable righteousness. It is vindicative but not vindictive and without it there could be no government and God would not be God. F. W. Robertson: Does not the element of vengeance exist in all punishment, and does not the feeling exist, not as a sinful, but as an essential, part of human nature? If so, there must be wrath in God.? Lord Bacon: Revenge is a wild sort ofjustice.? Stephen: Criminal law provides legitimate satisfaction of the passions of revenge.? Dorner, Glaubenslehre, 1:287. Per contra, see Bibliotheca Sacra, Apr. 1881:286-302; H. B. Smith, System of Theology, 46, 47; Chitty?s ed. of Blackstone?s Commentaries, 4:7; Wharton, Criminal Law, vol. 1, bk. 1, chap. 1.

2. The actual penalty of sin.

The one word in Scripture, which designates the total penalty of sin, is ?death.? Death, however, is twofold:

A. Physical death or the separation of the soul from the body, including all those temporal evils and sufferings which result from disturbance of the original harmony between body and soul, and which are the working of death in us. That physical death is a part of the penalty of sin, appears:

(a) From Scripture.

This is the most obvious import of the threatening in Gen. 2:17 ? ?thou shalt surely die?; cf. 3:19 ? ?unto dust shalt thou return.? Allusions to this threat in the O. T. confirm this interpretation: <041629>Numbers 16:29 ? ?visited after the visitation of all men,? where dq1p; = judicial visitation, or punishment; 27:3 (LXX . ? dij aJmarti>an auJtou~ ). The prayer of Moses in

<199007> Psalm 90:7-9, 11 and the prayer of Hezekiah in <233817>Isaiah 38:17, 18, recognize plainly the penal nature of death. The same doctrine is taught in

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