the strength of divinity, can bring a sacrifice to God. Not substitution, therefore, but obedience, on this view, reconciles us to God. Even if it is said that God?s Spirit is the real soul in all men, this will not help the matter for we should then have to make an essential distinction between the indwelling of the Spirit in the unregenerate, the regenerate and Christ, respectively. But in that ease we lose the likeness between Christ?s nature and our own, Christ?s being preexistent, and ours not. Without this pantheistic doctrine, Christ?s unlikeness to us is yet greater for he is really a wandering God, clothed in a human body and cannot properly be called a human soul. We have then no middle-point between the body and the Godhead and, in the state of exaltation, we have no manhood at all, only the infinite Logos, in a glorified body as his garment.?
Isaac Watts?s theory of a preexistent humanity in like manner implies that humanity is originally in deity, it does not proceed from a human stock, but from a divine; between the human and the divine there is no proper distinction, hence there can be no proper redeeming of humanity; see Bibliotheca Sacra, 1875:421. A. A. Hodge. Pop. Lectures, 226 ? ?If Christ does not take a human pneu~ma , he cannot be a high-priest who feels with us in all our infirmities, having been tempted like us.? Mason, Faith of the Gospel, 138 ? ?The conversion of the Godhead into flesh would have only added one more man to the number of men ? a sinless one, perhaps, among sinners but it would have effected no union of God and men.? On the theory in general, see Hovey, God with Us, 62-69; Hodge, Systematic Theology, 2:430-440; Philippi, Glaubenslehre. 4:356- 408; Biedermann, Christliche Dogmatik, 356-359; Bruce, Humiliation of Christ, 187, 230; Schaff, Christ and Christianity, 115-119.
B. Theory of a gradual incarnation. Dorner and Rothe hold that the union between the divine and the human natures is not completed by the incarnating act.
The advocates of this view maintain that the union between the two natures is accomplished by a gradual communication of the fullness of the divine Logos to the man Christ Jesus. This communication is mediated by the human consciousness of Jesus. Before the human consciousness begins, the personality of the Logos is not yet divine-human. The personal union completes itself only gradually, as the human consciousness is sufficiently developed to appropriate the divine.
Dorner, Glaubenslehre, 2:660 (Syst. Doct., 4:125) ? ?In order that Christ might show his high-priestly love by suffering and death, the different sides of his personality yet stood to one another in relative
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