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own existence in the very doubting of it; for ?cogito, ergo sum,? as Descartes himself insisted, really means ?cogito, scilicet sum?; H.B. Smith: ?The statement is analysis, not proof.? Ladd, Philosophy of Knowing, 59 ? ?The cogito , in barbarous Latin = cogitans sum : thinking is self-consciousness being .? Bentham: ?The word ought is an authoritative imposture, and ought to be banished from the realm of morals.? Spinoza and Hegel really deny self-consciousness when they make man a phenomenon of the infinite. Royce likens the denier of personality to the man who goes outside of his own house and declares that on one lives inside.

Professor James, in his Psychology, assumes the reality of a brain, but refuses to assume the reality of a soul. This is essentially the position of materialism. But this assumption of a brain is metaphysics, although the author claims to be writing a psychology without metaphysics. Ladd, Philosophy of Mind, 3 ? ?The materialist believes incausation proper so long as he is explaining the origin of mind from matter, but when he is asked to see in mind the cause of physical change he at once becomes a mere phenomenalist.? Royce, Spirit of Modern Philosophy, 400 ? ?I know that all beings, if only they can count, must find that three and two make five. Perhaps the angels cannot count; but, if they can, this axiom is true for them. If I met an angel who declared that his experience had occasionally shown him a three and two that did not make five, I should know at once what sort of an angel hew was.? On the criteria of first truths, see Porter, Human Intellect, 510, 511. On denial of them, see Shedd, dogmatic Theology, 1:213.

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