then gifts of healing, helps [ ajntilh>yeiv = gifts needed by deacons], governments [ kubenh>seiv = gifts needed by pastors] , divers kinds of tongues.?

(3)<451206> Romans 12:6-8 (A.D. 58) ? ?And having gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of our faith; or ministry [ diakoni>an ] , let us give ourselves to our ministry; or he that teacheth, to his teaching; or he that exhorteth, to his exhorting: he that giveth, let him do it with liberality; he that ruleth [ oJ pofstame>nov ], with diligence; he that showeth mercy, with cheerfulness.?

(4)<500101> Philippians 1:1 (A.D. 62) ? ?Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints in Christ Jesus that are at Philippi, with the bishops [ ejpiskopiv , margin: ?overseers?] and deacons [ diako>noiv ].?

(5)<490411> Ephesians 4:11 (A. D. 63) ? ?And he gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers [ poime>nav kai< didaska>louv ].?

(6)<540301> 1 Timothy 3:1, 2 (A.D. 66) ? ?If a man seeketh the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. The bishop [ to<n ejpi>skopon ] therefore must be without reproach.? On this last passage, [Luther in Meyer?s Com. remarks: ?Paul in the beginning looked at the church in its unity, only gradually does he make prominent its leaders. We must not infer that the churches in earlier time were without leadership but only that in the later time circumstances were such as to require him to lay emphasis upon the pastor?s office and work.? See also Schatt, Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, 62-75.

McGiffert, in his Apostolic Church, puts the dates of Paul?s Epistles considerably earlier, as for example: 1Thess., circ. 48; 1 Corinthians, c. 51, 52; Romans, 52, 53; Philippians, 56-58; Ephesians, 52, 53, or 56-58; 1Tim, 56-58. But even before the earliest Epistles of Paul comes

<590514> James 5:14 ? ?is any among you sick? let him call for the elders of the church? ? written about 48 A. D., and showing that within twenty years after the death of our Lord there had grown up a very definite form of church organization.

On the question how far our Lord and his apostles, in the organization of the church, availed themselves of the synagogue as a model, see Neander, Planting and Training, 28-34. The ministry of the church is without doubt an outgrowth and adaptation of the elder-ship of the synagogue. In the synagogue, there were elders who gave themselves to the study and

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