conscious at more than one point of the physical organism. Yet the question suggested above is an interesting one and with regard to it psychologists are divided. Paulsen, Einleitung in die Philosophie (1892), 133-159, holds that consciousness is correlated with the sum total of bodily processes, and with him agree Fechner and Wundt. ?Pfluger and Lewes say that as the hemispheres of the brain owe their intelligence to the consciousness which we know to be there, so the intelligence of the spinal cord?s acts must really be due to the invisible presence of a consciousness lower in degree.? Professor Brewer?s rattlesnake, after several hours of decapitation, still struck at him with its bloody neck, when he attempted to seize it by the tail. From the reaction of the frog?s leg after decapitation may we not infer a certain consciousness? ?Robin, on tickling the breast of a criminal an hour after decapitation, saw the arm and hand move toward the spot.? Hudson, Demonstration of a Future Life, 239-249, quotes from Hammond, Treatise on Insanity, chapter 2, to prove that the brain is not the sole organ of the mind. Instinct does not reside exclusively in the brain; it is seated in the medulla oblongata, or in the spinal cord, or in both these organs. Objective mind, as Hudson thinks, is the function of the physical brain, and it ceases when the brain loses its vitality. Instinctive acts are performed by animals after excision of the brain, and by human beings born without brain. Johnson, in Andover Rev., April, 1890:421 ? ?The brain is not the only seat of consciousness. The same evidence that points to the brain as the principal seat of consciousness points to the nerve centers situated in the spinal cord or elsewhere as the seat of a more or less subordinate consciousness or intelligence.? Ireland, Blot on the Brain, 26 ? ?I do not take it for proved that consciousness is entirely confined to the brain.?
In spite of these opinions, however, we must grant that the general consensus among psychologists is upon the other side. Dewey, Psychology, 349 ? ?The sensory and motor nerves have points of meeting in the spinal cord. When a stimulus is transferred from a sensory nerve to a motor without the conscious intervention of the mind, we have reflex action. If something approaches the eye, the stimulus is transferred to the spinal cord, and instead of being continued to the brain and giving rise to a sensation, it is discharged into a motor nerve and the eye is immediately closed? the reflex action in itself involves no consciousness.? William James, Psychology, 1:16, 66, 134, 214 ? ?The cortex of the brain is the sole organ of consciousness in man? if there be any consciousness pertaining to the lower centers, it is a consciousness of which the self knows nothing. In lower animals this may not be so much the case. The seat of the mind, so far as its dynamical relations are
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