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corrupt and guilty. This view would have been impossible, if Edwards had not been an idealist, making far too much of acts and exercises and far too little of substance.

It is difficult to explain the origin of Jonathan Edwards?s idealism. It has sometimes been attributed to the reading of Berkeley. Dr. Samuel Johnson, afterwards President of King?s College in New York City, a personal friend of Bishop Berkeley and an ardent follower of his teaching, was a tutor in Yale College while Edwards was a student. But Edwards was in Weathersfield while Johnson remained in New Haven and was among those disaffected towards Johnson as a tutor. Yet Edwards, Original Sin, 479, seems to allude to the Berkeleyan philosophy when he says: ?The course of nature is demonstrated by recent improvements in philosophy to be indeed nothing but the established order and operation of the Author of nature? (see Allen, Jonathan Edwards, 16, 308, 309). President McCracken, in Philos. Rev., Jan. 1892:26-42, holds that Arthur Collier?s Clavis Universalis is the source of Edwards?s idealism. It is more probable that his idealism was the result of his own independent thinking, occasioned perhaps by mere hints from Locke, Newton, Cudworth, and Norris, with whose writings he certainly was acquainted. See E. C. Smyth, in Am. Jour. Theol., Oct. l897:956; Prof. Gardiner, in Philos. Rev., Nov. 1900:573-596.

How thorough going this idealism of Edwards was may be learned from Noah Porters Discourse on Bishop George Berkeley, 71, and quotations from Edwards, in Journ. Spec. Philos., Oct. 1883:40l ? 420 ? ?Nothing else has a proper being but spirits and bodies are but the shadow of being. Seeing the brain exists only mentally, I therefore acknowledge that I speak improperly when I say that the soul is in the brain only, as to its operations. For, to speak yet more strictly and abstractedly, ?tis nothing but the connection of the soul with these and those modes of its own ideas, or those mental acts of the Deity, seeing the brain exists only in idea. That, which truly is the substance of all bodies, is the infinitely exact and precise and perfectly stable idea in God?s mind together with his stable will that the same shape be gradually communicated to us and to other minds according to certain fixed and established methods and laws. In somewhat different language, the infinitely exact and precise divine idea, together with an answerable, perfectly exact, precise, and stable will, with respect to correspondent communications to created minds and effects on those minds.? It is easy to see how, from this view of Edwards, the ?Exercise system? of Hopkins and Emmons naturally developed itself. On Edwards?s Idealism, see Frazer?s Berkeley (BIackwood?s Philos.

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