Idealism proper is that method of thought which regards all knowledge as conversant only with affections of the percipient mind.
Its element of truth is the fact that these affections of the percipient mind are the conditions of our knowledge. Its error is in denying that through these and in these we know that which exists independently of our consciousness.
The idealism of the present day is mainly a materialistic idealism. It defines matter and mind alike in terms of sensation, and regards either as opposite sides or successive manifestations of one underlying and unknowable force.
Modern subjective idealism is the development of a principle found as far back as Locke. Locke derived all our knowledge from sensation; the mind only combines Ideas which sensation furnishes, but gives no material of its own. Berkeley held that externally we can be sure only of sensations,
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