American involvement in the Philippines came through the Spanish-American war, when Admiral George Dewey's forces sank the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay on 1 May 1898. Six months after Aguinaldo proclaimed independence in repudiation of his earlier pact with the Spaniards, the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the Treaty of Paris on 10 December 1898, and subsequently retained, according to American President William McKinley, 'to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them'.44 Protestant missionary boards then sent missionaries as early as 1899 and formed an Evangelical Union, which excluded the Episcopal Church under Bishop Charles Brent that chose to preach instead to non-Christian tribes in northern Luzon and Mindanao.45
41 Schumacher, Revolutionary clergy, pp. 268-74.
42 Anderson, The spectre of comparisons, p. 257.
43 Ileto, Pasyon and revolution, p. 225.
44 James F. Rusling, 'Interview with President McKinley', The Christian Advocate 78 (20 January 1903), pp. 137-8.
45 Anderson (ed.), Studies in Philippine church history, pp. 279-300.
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