Movement, and fostered by the influential journal The Ecclesiologist (1841-68). Although Tractarian principles were generally opposed by senior churchmen, the pervasive culture of Romanticism softened traditional English antipathy to Catholic worship and practice. Hence most churches constructed after the mid-i850s followed the layout of a medieval parish church, with a nave distinguished from a deep chancel. There was a shift from the old Anglican emphasis on a dominant pulpit towards the liturgical significance ofthe altar. In many churches the revival of church music demanded choir stalls at the east end rather than a western choir-gallery. This new layout is evident in the elaborate reconstruction of Leeds parish church between 1838 and 1841 by the minor architect R. D. Chantrell under the aegis of the vicar, W F. Hook. To readers of The Ecclesiologist the style ofthe church might have seemed 'impure', but its liturgical ambitions were undoubtedly innovative. Equally creative in its response to Puginian principles was Richard Upjohn's Trinity Church, New York (1839-46), which marked a significant shift in American Gothic Revival design, though with its plaster vault and minimal chancel it remained conservative compared to the churches designed by Upjohn's contemporaries in England. Here the mid-century world of church architecture was to be dominated by three major figures: William Butterfield (1814-1900), George Edmund Street (1824-81) and John Loughborough Pearson (1817-97). Beside their ecclesiastical work, even that of G. G. Scott looks tame and dutifully conventional. Only Scott's finest work, All Souls, Haley Hill, Halifax (i855-9), St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Edinburgh (1874-9) and certain ofthe fittings he designed for the many English medieval cathedrals whose fabric he restored, can stand comparison with the work of his rivals.

The major commissions to Butterfield, Street and Pearson for designs for new churches came from clients sympathetic to the Oxford Movement. But-terfield's early masterpiece, the church ofAll Saints, Margaret Street (i839-59), was constructed on a cramped site in the West End of London. The church stands to the rear of a tightly designed courtyard containing a rectory and choir school, both contiguous with the church. The site is dominated by a soaring tower crowned by a slate-tiled broach spire which accentuates the horizontal emphasis of the whole composition. What most delights the eye is the strident red brick that Butterfield employed, the surfaces being articulated with stripes, diapers and lozenges of black brick, which originally stood out against the dull and sooty yellow bricks of the surrounding houses. The interior of the church explodes with yet more colour: reds, greens, blues, ochres, blacks and golds. Its materials are suitably rich, but what immediately

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