church and state. The West-Nordic tradition was to a certain degree low church Lutheran with a strong integration of church and state. The once mighty bishops had, as a consequence of the Reformation, been replaced by the king's superintendents. But the East-Nordic tradition was high church and confessionally orthodox, with a weaker degree of integration with the state. In Sweden, for example, there was a certain, recognised, ecclesiastical realm, and the archbishop's office had continued through the Reformation. In Finland a similar see was established after the separation from Sweden in 1809. These western and eastern traditions lived in almost total isolation from each other. But such patterns and traditions were challenged and altered during the nineteenth century.

Geopolitical changes and pan-Scandinavianism

The geopolitical map of Norden has changed dramatically since the beginning of the nineteenth century, with a resulting impact on the churches and church life. Sweden lost Swedish Pomerania in 1807. Finland, the eastern part of Lutheran Sweden, was separated from Sweden in 1809 and became an autonomous Russian Grand Duchy, a traumatic loss for Sweden. But the Tsar, Alexander I, promised the Finnish Diet in Porvoo in 1809 to uphold the Lutheran religion of Finland. After the Russian Revolution and a terrible civil war during which the Lutheran Church and the revivalist movement became involved with the war of 'the whites' against 'the reds', Finland became an independent nation-state in 1917-18 with a Lutheran majority church and a small Finnish Orthodox Church (representing some 1 per cent of the population) as established churches.

Denmark became involved in the Napoleonic wars on the French side, went bankrupt in 1813 and had to give up all rights to Norway in the Treaty of Kiel (January 1814). After an important interlude in the spring of 1814 that led to a liberal Norwegian constitution, and a short war against Sweden, a new union between Norway and Sweden under one monarchy and with a common foreign policy was established. This lasted until 1905, when it was dissolved. While the former union with Denmark had made a strong impact on Norwegian society, culture and church life, the union with Sweden was loose. Each country had its own ecclesiastical administration, and owing to an awakening national consciousness there was no wish for any unification of the churches and their separate traditions.

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