(notably) Scotland. Yet the society also developed increasingly close connections with American evangelicals. Six of its seventeen Foreign Directors in 1815 were from the United States. The LMS and the ABCFM shared a keen interest in the evangelisation of the Pacific islands; William Ellis, former missionary in Polynesia and LMS Foreign Secretary from 1831 to 1841, corresponded regularly with Rufus Anderson on mission strategy. The LMS and the ABCFM underwent a similar evolution from original interdenominationalism towards a predominantly Congregationalist constituency. As their denominational base narrowed, the two agencies grew closer to each other, and the transatlantic nexus gradually supplanted the older European ties.

A similar trajectory is observable in the case of Scottish Presbyterians. In the first non-denominational phase of the Scottish missionary movement, before the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland sent its first missionary, Alexander Duff, to Bengal in 1830, Scottish evangelicals were closely linked through the LMS and the associated Glasgow and Edinburgh Missionary Societies to continental pietist movements and the developing Genevan Reveil. Thomas Chalmers avidly read the Periodical Accounts of the Moravian missions, and the local missionary society over which he presided at St Andrews from 1823 to 1828 was a liberal donor to Moravian mission funds. After 1830, however, the evangelicals in the Church ofScotland threw their weight behind the church's own foreign missions, and their participation in pan-European evangelical ecumenism weakened. Although Chalmers remained president of the Edinburgh Association in aid of Moravian Missions until his death in 1847, he had also accepted honorary positions with the New York Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church and the ABCFM. The Disruption of 1843 did not halt this growing realignment in a transatlantic direction. The Free Church Foreign Missions Committee sent Alexander Duff to the USA and Canada in 1854, where his advocacy of the missionary cause had a great impact. His first address, to a crowd of 3,000-4,000 in Philadelphia, referred to America and Britain 'shaking hands across the Atlantic as the two great props of evangelic Protestant Christianity in the world'.3 It was a sentiment that could not have been uttered in the 1790s, or even in 1813. It presaged the tone of the missionary movement over the next sixty years, culminating in the World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh in 1910, at which the descendants of continental European pietism at times felt oppressed by the weight of the British-American evangelical axis.

3 G. Smith, The life of Alexander Duff, D.D., LL.D., 2 vols. (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1879), vol. ii, p. 268.

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