principle of territoriality - cuius regio eius religio - guaranteed confessional homogeneity within precisely defined areas.2 However, this right of existence was not applied to the small Jewish minority.3

Unlike the older predominantly mono-confessional cantons, most of those established by the Mediation Act in 1803 were denominationally mixed. After the foundation of the modern nation-state in 1848, fourteen of the twenty-five cantons were more or less mono-confessional (Protestant: Zurich, Schaffhausen, Appenzell Outer-Rhodes, Vaud and Neuchatel; Catholic: Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Zug, Appenzell Inner-Rhodes, Ticino and Valais). Moreover, Fribourg and Solothurn had Catholic majorities, and Berne, Glarus and Basel Protestant majorities, all of between 80 and 90 per cent.4 In the mixed cantons of St Gall, Grisons, Argovia and Geneva the Protestant and Catholic populations varied between 38 and 62 per cent either way.

Between 1850 and 1900, the percentage of Protestants and Catholics in the whole of Switzerland remained very stable, with a Catholic population of 40.6 to 41.9 per cent. Census returns indicate that there were 971,809 Catholics and 1,417,786 Protestants in 1850 and 1,379,664 Catholics and 1,916,157 Protestants in 1900. The number of Jews was 3,145 in 1850 and 12,264 in 1900. Owing to migration within Switzerland and immigration in the wake of industrialisation, especially from Germany and Italy, the cantons of Zurich, Geneva and Basel - and especially the towns of the same name - experienced a significant growth in the Catholic population. Whereas in 1850 there were 6,690 Catholics living in the canton of Zurich, their number had increased to 40,402 by 1888 and 80,752 by 1900. More than 90 per cent of these were labourers, workmen and domestic servants.5 In contrast, in Solothurn, immigration from Berne brought about an increase in the number of Protestants from 11.6 per cent in 1850 to 25.6 per cent in 1888 and 30.9 per cent in 1900. Between 1850 and 1888 the Catholic population in the Protestant cantons of Zurich, Berne, Glarus,

2 See Kaspar von Greyerz, Religion und Kultur: Europa 15 00-1800 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 2000).

3 See Florence Guggenheim-Grünberg, 'Vom Scheiterhaufen zur Emanzipation. Die Juden in der Schweiz vom 6. bis 19. Jahrhundert', in Willy Guggenheim, Juden in der Schweiz. Glaube - Geschichte - Gegenwart (Küsnacht and Zurich: Kürz, 2nd edn, 1983), pp. 10-53; Augusta Weldler-Steinberg, Geschichte derJuden in der Schweiz vom 16. Jahrhundert bis nach der Emanzipation, 2 vols. (Zurich: Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, 1966, 1970); Jüdische Lebenswelt Schweiz: 100Jahre Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund (SIG) (Zurich: Chronos, 2004).

4 See for the following figures: Statistisches Jahrbuch der Schweiz, ed. by the Statistisches Bureau des eidgenossischen Departements des Innern, Berne, vol. i (1891), pp. 14-15; and xii (1903), p. 7.

5 See Altermatt, Katholizismus und Moderne, pp. 239-40,181-202.

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