population. Freedom of worship, freedom of settlement and legal equality were accorded solely to Christians. It was only in the context of a trade treaty with France that a partial revision of the Swiss constitution in 1866 granted the Swiss Jews the right of free settlement and legal equality. Freedom of belief and conscience was not extended to all Swiss until the revision of 1874. In 1893, a discriminatory law against kosher slaughter was added to the constitution. Central to the double exclusion of the Jews, political and cultural, was the idea of the so-called 'Christian state', often linked to anti-Semitic discourse.11

Protestantism between revivalism and liberalism

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a Protestant revivalist movement arose in reaction to liberal theology This brought about a heterogenisation of Protestantism. In addition to the cantonal churches, the Landeskirchen, and the Schweizerische reformierte Kirchenkonferenz founded in 1858, a variety of evangelical churches and communities were established, centred in Basel and Geneva. Here an Evangelical Free Church was founded in 1849 as a church independent of the state. From the mid-nineteenth century, revivalism became part of the conservative Protestant movement. It also gave rise to a number of pious, missionary and welfare societies, which were ambivalent in their attitudes to modern society. Since the diffusion of the Bible was a central concern of the revivalist movement, in several cantons so-called Bible associations were established. Among the foreign missionary societies, the Basler Mission (founded in 1815) became the most prominent. Controlled by an influential and tightly knit social elite, and with its own missionary seminary in Basel, it was especially oriented towards West Africa and south-west India.12

Liberal Protestant theology was influenced by the rational theology of the Tübingen School. One of the most renowned Protestant theologians in Switzerland was Alexandre Vinet in Lausanne, a vehement warrior for religious freedom and the separation of church and state. Under his influence, the Free Church of Vaud was set up. From the mid-nineteenth century, liberal theology became the dominant strain in Swiss Protestantism, aiming

11 See Altermatt, 'Religion, Staat und Gesellschaft in der Schweiz'; Mattioli (ed.), Antisemitismus, especially: Mattioli, 'Die Schweiz und die jüdische Emanzipation 1798-1874', pp. 61-82; Pascal Krauthammer, Das Schächtverbotinder Schweiz 1854-2000: die Schächtfrage zwischen Tierschutz, Politik und Fremdenfeindlichkeit (Zurich: Schulthess, 2000).

12 SeeFatio, 'Die protestantischen Kirchen', pp. 215-19; Olivier Fatio, 'Auseinandersetzungen und Aufbrüche', in Vischer et al. (eds.), Ökumenische Kirkengeschichte, pp. 236-46; Pfister, Kirchengeschichte, pp. 251-9; Gabler, 'Erweckungsbewegungen'.

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