In the meantime, the New York chemist and historian John William Draper (1811-82), who was intimately familiar with religious issues from his Methodist upbringing, presented a diametrically opposed view to that of the 'Gottes Zeugen' (God's witnesses) literature, attacking the Catholic Church for its alleged traditional hostility towards science and scientists. Religion and science had fought a continual battle in an effort by Christianity, 'steeped in blood', to attain and retain political power over and against 'the expansive force of the human intellect'.7 The general drift of Draper's argument was continued by the Cornell University historian Andrew Dickson White, brought up as a high church Episcopalian, who characterised the engagement of Christianity and the sciences as a perennial war between 'Dogmatic Theology' and 'untrammelled scientific investigation'.8 The warfare model in describing the relationship of religion and science has bedevilled the historiography of the subject ever since, and for much of the twentieth century it was fashionable to speak of'the warfare waged by traditional religion against scientific knowledge'.9 That interpretation has now given way to major revisionist scholarship by, among others - for the period of this chapter -John Hedley Brooke, David Livingstone, James Moore and Ronald Numbers, who have produced a fuller understanding of the remarkable diversity of Christian engagements with the sciences.10

The nineteenth-century harmonisation schemata were first and foremost a reaction to the then new perspective of geological time and history, and centred on the meaning of the Genesis stories of creation and deluge. As a Catholic theologian at Maynooth, Gerald Molloy (1834-1906), commented: 'The rapid progress of Physical Science, in modern times, has given rise to not a few objections against the truths of Revelation. Of these objections there is none which seems to have taken such a firm hold of the public mind in

(1780-1862) at MontpeUier; the Lutheran zoologist Johann Andreas Wagner (1797-1861) at Munich; the Congregationalist president of Amherst College, Edward Hitchcock (17931864); Hitchcock's teacher Benjamin Silliman (1816-85), Professor of Chemistry and Natural History at Yale University; the latter's pupil and Yale colleague, the geologist James Dwight Dana (1813-95); and the Calvinist geographer at Princeton, Arnold Guyot (180784). Among the theologians were such Catholics as the later archbishop of Westminster Nicholas Patrick Stephen Wiseman (1802-65), the Professor of Old Testament Studies at Bonn and active supporter of the Old Catholics Franz Heinrich Reusch (1825-1900), and the Italian scientist-theologian and Jesuit Giambattista Pianciani (1784-1862).

7 J. W. Draper, History of the conflict between religion and science (London: Henry S. King, 1875), pp. vi, xi.

8 A. D. White, A history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom, 2 vols. (New York: Dover republication, 1960), vol. i, pp. viii-ix.

9 Russell, Religion and science, p. 7.

10 Brooke, Science and religion; Lindberg and Numbers, God and nature and When science and Christianity meet; Ferngren (ed.), The history of science and religion.

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