Schaepman (1844-1903), who was the first Catholic priest to enter parliament. He had to pacify the traditional conservative Catholic elite, but at the same time mobilise political support for Catholic aims. As with the Protestants, this meant a party organisation, with a political programme, and recruiting the votes of the masses. Rerum Novarum in 1891 was a vindication of Schaepman's efforts, and by the end of the century he had won most Catholics over to his approach. In 1901 the Roman Catholic and orthodox Protestant political parties formed a coalition under the premiership of Abraham Kuyper, and the emancipation of those groups had been largely achieved. The structure of pillarisation, with its ideological divisions and its system ofnegotiation at elite level, was in place; moreover its realisation also made a defining contribution to the ways in which the Dutch national consciousness emerged in the heyday of European nation formation.

It was, after all, the century of secularisation, as well as the century of religious revival,38 and organised religion was being challenged. A secular professionalisation of medicine, poor relief and social work meant that several church functions were being eroded. However, improvements in transport and communication allowed the mobilisation at national level of the emerging confessional organisations: Kuyper reckoned the advent of the affordable daily newspaper to have been critical to his success.39 The internal integration of religious groups escalated, and they began to take on a new, nation-wide identity, the Calvinists assisted by an idea of their mission in the world, for example in South Africa or the Dutch East Indies.40 This specifically Calvinist national identity was not valid for the whole nation, but along with others was an essential part of the maturing of Dutch nationalism around 1900.41

The Catholics followed a similar though separate path. Their revival or emancipation allowed a whole process of identity reconstruction and self-awareness which saw them take their place, after centuries of subjection, alongside the orthodox Calvinists, as an equal part of the nation. Thus Catholics also created a national identity for themselves,42 for example in their architecture, in their revived processions, and in their participation in debates like those addressed in Rerum Novarum. But these identities were specifically Catholic or

39 'De rede van dr. Kuyper (1897)', in J. C. Boogman and C. A. Tamse (eds.), Emancipatie in Nederland: de ontvoogding van burgerij en confessionelen in de negentiende eeuw (The Hague: Nijhoff,i978), pp. 179-81.

40 Van Koppen, Degeuzen, pp. 232-3.

41 Kossmann, 'Some questions', p. i2.

42 Raedts, 'Katholieken op zoek', p. 720.

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