Popular devotions, especially that of the Sacred Heart, intensified, overtaking the simple interior faith of the eighteenth century reformers. Also there was no attempt in Spain to eliminate religion from the schools as new education laws were passed. The new religious congregations of the later nineteenth century founded orphanages, hospitals, reformatories and schools. The 2,000 men and 20,000 women of 1868 had grown to 11,000 men and 40,000 women by 1904. By contrast the number of diocesan priests almost halved between 1867 and 1951.10 But the regular clergy ceased to be involved in home missionary activity, and ironically as urbanisation and industrialisation developed the church became more concentrated in the countryside than the towns. The state refused to create new parishes in the towns from the 1880s.11 Lannon regards the religious revival in later nineteenth century Spain as 'a mainly bourgeois phenomenon, not a popular one'.12 Certainly the church became more exclusively identified with right-wing politics. The freedom of religious worship permitted under article 11 of the 1876 constitution provoked traditional cries that this permitted error. Leo XIII appealed to the church in Spain in 1882 to accept the new constitutional situation, as he was to do in France ten years later; but efforts to form a Catholic Union which might represent a more moderate position in politics failed.13

Portugal escaped the Napoleonic period more lightly, but had a nineteenth-century history very similar to that of Spain. Religious practice was much stronger in the north than the south, and the majority of monasteries were dissolved in 1833-4. Subsequently the religious orders reappeared and developed in ways very comparable to Spain and France. The state abolished tithes in 1832 and took over parochial endowments in the 1860s, resulting in a significant loss of income for the parochial clergy. Religious toleration was introduced in 1864 despite the strong opposition of the church, but Roman Catholicism was recognised as the official religion of the state until 1911, when it was separated after the revolution of 1910. This legislation was very similar to the Law of Separation in France of 1905, and also involved the suppression of the religious orders again.14

Italy too in the late eighteenth century was well provided with clergy - in the Kingdom of Naples there was probably one priest for every hundred people,

10 Lannon, Privilege, persecution, and prophecy, pp. 59, 61, 89.

11 Callahan, Church, politics and society, p. 245.

12 Lannon, Privilege, persecution, and prophecy, p. 149.

14 Chadwick, A history of the popes, pp. 469-83.

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