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afterwards secretary of state to Benedict XV and Pius XI. This codification had a vast influence on the church in the twentieth century, especially canon 329, which reserved the appointment of bishops to the Holy See. The changes, moreover, were also pastoral. From 1906, there was a painstaking reform of the education and discipline of the seminaries. Pius reformed the Breviary by reducing the number of psalms for recitation by a quarter, and insisting on the priority of Sundays over saints' days in the calendar. The encyclical Acerbo Nimis of 1905 urged the faithful teaching of Christian doctrine through the catechism. The pope issued a new catechism for the province of Rome, later extended elsewhere. In worship, he tried to insist on the use of Gregorian plainchant and polyphony, over the loved modern sub-Mozartian operatic settings for masses, while his support for the Solesmes version of plainchant did away with much local usage. These reforms urged lay participation in the liturgy. Pius rebutted the Jansenist discouragement of frequent reception of the sacrament through a sense of unworthiness, and exhorted the faithful to receive communion often, and even daily: this was a means to holiness and not its reward. The decree Quam Singulari ChristusAmore of 1910 lowered the age for first communion for children who could recognise the sacrament. Pius created parishes and churches for areas of Rome of increasing population: more than most popes, he was a bishop to the city, less a prince than a pastor, as in his class in catechesis in Christian doctrine on Sunday afternoons in the courtyard of St Damasus.

Pius dined informally with guests, forbade applause when he entered St Peter's, and refused to allow the faithful to kiss his foot. He wore his tiara at a rakish angle. He would not enrich his relatives. There was a grand simplicity in his conception ofthe pope as the parish priest ofChristendom. The Italians loved him as one of them. Born a subject of the Austrian empire, where Italian nationalism was anti-imperial rather than antipapal, he had little of the feeling in the old Papal States that to be a good Catholic was to be a bad Italian. Pius still had to protest at the loss ofthe States ofthe church, but told a Catholic layman 'that if Victor Emmanuel were to offer to abandon Rome to him he would at once reply, "Stay where you are"'. 'Members of the Curia were allowed to collaborate publicly with State officials; deputies and senators ofthe kingdom were received in private audience; more incredible still, the tricolour was seen within the precincts of the Vatican, and delegates from the Italian religious organizations entered to the strains of the Royal March',4 while the Roman black aristocracy, who had shunned the Italian monarchy, looked on aghast.

4 Binchy, Church and state in Fascist Italy, p. 55.

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