unconditional commitment to bring Piedmont into the Crimean War. This cynical compromise confirmed Pio Nono's conviction that nationalism and anticlericalism were synonymous, and he opposed both.

In February 1856, when the congress ending the Crimean War convened, Pius implored Napoleon's protection for the church, asking the French to prevent the congress from addressing papal affairs.39 His intentions were thwarted by Cavour. In April, after the terms of peace had been settled, Waleski, at Napoleon's bidding, proposed discussing problems that might disturb the peace. Cavour addressed the powers and the tribunal of public opinion, denouncing the irregular state of affairs in the Papal States, and suggesting that its problems burdened the entire peninsula. Pius was exasperated by Cavour's tactics, lamenting that he had even charmed the Russians. Perhaps it was because a big dog does not notice the barking of a small one, he confided to his brother, adding that he had certainly followed the Piedmontese antics.40

Rome wondered why the study Napoleon had commissioned on the papal government and its finances (the Rayneval report) was not released. That report contended that the 'abuses' of the Roman regime were neither qualitatively nor quantitatively different from those elsewhere. Antonelli released this positive report to the courts of Europe. However, the goodwill it generated was squandered by Pio Nono's stance during the Mortara affair of 1858. The Hebrew child, Edgardo Levi Mortara, secretly baptised by a Christian servant of the household during a childhood illness, was taken from his parents in June 1858, to assure his salvation. There were protests from the family, the Jews of Italy and Napoleon, but Pius refused to relent. Despite the condemnation of world opinion and the unfortunate publicity it generated, Pius would not budge.41 Cavour utilised the Mortara affair to discredit Rome, and secretly schemed with Napoleon to reorganise Italy. At Plombieres, in late July 1858, the two plotted war against Austria and a diminution of the Papal States. The nuncio in Paris, Sacconi, reported that the French empire had little good to say about the papal government, proposing that the pope have a smaller state so he would be less embarrassed by the burdens of power.42

39 ASV, Archivio Particolare Pio IX, Francia, Sovrani, nn. 30 and 32.

41 Gabriele (ed.), Il carteggio Antonelli-Sacconi, vol. 1, p. xiii; ASV, Archivio Particolare Pio IX, Oggetti Vari, n. 1433.

42 Gabriele (ed.), Il carteggio Antonelli-Sacconi, vol. 1 ,p. 5; Massari, Diario, pp. 84, 93.

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