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of Catholic members, confronted the church with the problem of the poor in its modern industrial form. Elzear Taschereau, archbishop of Quebec, with his predominantly rural flock, had Rome condemn the Canadian Knights, but the ban was successfully opposed in the United States by James Gibbons, archbishop of Baltimore (1877-1921), the effective primate, though not in name, of the United States. With John Ireland, archbishop of St Paul, and John Keane, bishop of Richmond and first rector of the Catholic University of America, Gibbons led the liberal arm of the American church. A more conservative strategy was offered by Michael Corrigan, archbishop of New York; he was strongly sympathetic to the city's famous Tammany Hall political machine and provoked popular demonstrations by suspending the pastor Fr Edward McGlynn, whose social gospel drew on the ideas of the land reformer Henry George. The division between liberals and conservatives reflected a wider tension over the accommodation of the church to American liberal democratic ideals, pioneered by the convert Isaac Hecker, and resulted in the papal condemnation of the heresy of 'Americanism' in the encyclical Testem Benevolentiae in 1899.

There was an appreciable emigration to Canada, with its open border with its greater neighbour, which supplemented the French church of Quebec with an Anglophone church of Irish and Scottish Catholics. A majority of emigrants from Ireland to Canada were Protestant, who did much to confirm the power of Canadian anti-Catholicism. The major Irish Catholic settlement of Newfoundland, of fisherfolk largely from Waterford and New Ross, had six successive Irish-born bishops, the first James Louis O'Donel (1796-1807), who carefully conformed to English colonial rule. Very different was the fiery Franciscan bishop Michael Anthony Fleming (1829-50), a priest formed on the model of O'Connellite nationalism, who championed the poor against the elite of his own flock as well as against British authority. The Irish also dominated the Catholic Church in Nova Scotia, most notably through Thomas Louis Connolly (archbishop 1859-76), a champion of Canadian Federation. The first bishop of New Brunswick, William Dollard (1843-51), was also Irish, as were his two successors. The province of Ontario could claim fourteen Irish-born bishops in the nineteenth century, the most distinguished being John Joseph Lynch, archbishop of Toronto, from County Monaghan (bishop 1860-70; archbishop 1870-88), who succeeded a French aristocrat, the comte de Charbonnel; at one point Ontario had five Irish-born bishops. In Quebec, the Irish sometimes formed their own parishes, islands in the larger sea of French Catholicism. Most of the missionary work in western Canada was the work of the French.

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