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u. altermatt, f. metzger and m. wintle politicisation of religion very explicitly. In 1841, they imposed a Catholic-exclusionist constitution in Lucerne, which made the right to vote dependent on belonging to the Catholic Church. They promoted the appointment of Jesuits in order to ensure the Ultramontane orientation of the new generations of Catholics.

From the early nineteenth century onwards, Protestant theologians, such as Johann Kaspar Lavater and Johann Jakob Hess from Zurich, also found themselves among the antirevolutionary conservatives. Parallel to Catholic traditionalism, a Protestant revivalist movement arose. In 1839, the conservative rural population of Protestant Zurich overthrew the liberal government after the appointment of the controversial theologian David Friedrich Strauss, author of Das LebenJesu (1835-6), to a post at the University of Zurich. However, an alliance between Catholic and Protestant conservatives did not take shape because of the confessionalisation of political conflicts.8

The constitution of the Swiss Confederation of 1848 declared freedom of religion and belief to be an individual affair, not linked to territoriality, and assigned church matters to the cantons. However, with their discriminatory articles against the Catholic Church and religious congregations, the constitutions of 1848 and 1874 remained expressions of the politicisation of religion and anticlerical intrusions by the liberal state into the sphere of religion. The ban on the Jesuits lasted for more than a century.9

In the 1870s the conflicts surfaced once more, especially in the large diocese of Basel. Bishop Eugene Lachat, who had openly declared himself in favour of the dogma of papal infallibility, was dismissed by the diocesan conference of the cantons in 1873 and, despite demonstrations in his support by Catholics, was exiled from liberal-radical Solothurn to Catholic-conservative Lucerne. After a protest from the pope, the Swiss government broke off its relations with the nuncio in Lucerne. In 1873 Pius IX designated Gaspard Mermillod apostolic vicar of Geneva, trying to re-establish a diocese without consulting the cantonal or national government. As a consequence, Mermillod was exiled from Switzerland, becoming, for Catholics, the martyr of the Kulturkampf in

Geneva. 10

The incomplete character of religious freedom in the constitution of the modern Swiss nation-state is especially apparent with regard to the Jewish

8 See Altermatt, 'Conservatism in Switzerland'; Olivier Fatio, 'Die protestantischen Kirchen', in Vischer etal. (eds.), Okumemische Kirkengeschichte, pp. 215-19.

9 See Urs Josef Cavelti, Kirchenrecht im demokratischen Umfeld (Fribourg: Universitatsverlag, 1999).

10 See Stadler, Der Kulturkampf, pp. 260-316, 586-94.

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