Calvinist, going to make up a multiple rather than a single shared national identity.43

At first glance it might seem that these different nationalisms were pulling in different directions. However, nationalism is seldom unified, but at best a force which integrates very different sub-nationalisms. Nation-building efforts were creating a location for the various groups within the framework of the nation at large; it was a search for legitimation, for a just and recognised place for themselves as an active, important, but unique part of the Dutch nation, past, present and future.44 National identity assisted the process of verzuiling by providing a common concept, even if the content of the concept differed considerably from group to group. The growth of the various group national identities in the nineteenth century, often centred around the issues of religion and education, not only contributed to verzuiling but itself benefited from the culture of integration and accommodation. Thus religious pillarisation and the evolution of Dutch national identity were mutually complementary, part of the same process, and indeed two sides of the same coin.

43 Wintle, An economic and socialhistory, chapter 11.

44 Van Sas, 'De mythe Nederland', pp. 18-19; Van Miert, 'Confessionelen en de natie'.

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