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bishopric of Constance divided into the dioceses of Freiburg (for Baden) and Rottenburg (WUrttemberg), and the former electoral diocese of Mainz restored as the see for Hesse-Darmstadt. At the same time, the Vatican strove to create mutually favourable agreements with the states on such issues as ecclesiastical pay, clerical nominations, education and the Catholic Church's general ability to manage its internal affairs. This resulted in the Bavarian concordat in 1817, a Prussian convention in 1821, and more informal arrangements with Hanover and Württemberg. In Austria, however, Metternich held firm to the policy ofJosephinism, whereby the clergy functioned as state agents of religion, morality and public order. Taken together, the post-Vienna settlements put the Catholic Church in a position vis-à-vis the state remarkably similar to that which the Protestant churches had known since the Reformation: subject to close state regulation and supervision.

German Protestantism was also affected by the new political geography, for several states now found themselves home to a variety of Protestant traditions. Propelled by a sense that the old reasons for intraconfessional division were no longer valid, Protestants in Baden, Nassau and the Hesses created new, united state churches. King Frederick William III adopted a similar strategy, but in fusing the Lutheran and Reformed churches in old (pre-1815) Prussia by royal fiat, he aroused the ire of many churchmen, above all Berlin's leading theologian, Friedrich Schleiermacher. The predominantly Reformed Prussian Rhineland and Westphalia, however, remained outside the union, receiving their own church constitution in 1835. In Bavaria too multiple models of Protestant church organisation co-existed: union in the Palatinate and a confessional Lutheran church for the rest of the kingdom.

The same factors that encouraged the development of united Protestant churches also promoted peaceful relations between church and state and among the Christian churches. Rulers desired an alliance between throne and altar. They regarded the churches as necessary pillars of order and authority, and relied on clergy to serve as local agents of state power. Churches likewise lent the princes their support, seeing the latter's conservative policies as complementary to their own efforts to root out religious rationalism and promote the rechristianisation of German Europe. The Holy Alliance between Catholic Austria, Protestant Prussia and Orthodox Russia stands as one of the clearest expressions of this Romantic ecumenism. But it also appears in the contributions of Ernst Ludwig von Gerlach, the founder of the influential Protestant Evàngelische Kirchenzeitung, to the Catholic Politisches Wochenblàtt, and in the intellectual exchanges between Protestant and Catholic theologians at the University of Tubingen.

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