From the holiness movement, as an extrapolation with worldwide significance, arose modern Pentecostalism. Soon after William J. Seymour (1870-i922), an African-American preacher, founded the Apostolic Faith Gospel Mission in 1906 at an abandoned Methodist church on Azusa Street in Los Angeles, the message he had learned about the sign gifts of the Holy Spirit from Charles Fox Parham (1873-1929) and other holiness evangelists created a local sensation. Hispanics, blacks and Caucasians streamed to Azusa Street, and they were soon joined by a wide array of international visitors, who were eager to experience physical healing, ecstatic worship and the gift oftongues. Out ofthe sanctified chaos of early Pentecostalism eventually arose several major denominations, including the Church of God in Christ, organised by C. H. Mason (1866-1961), which served a mostly black constituency, and the Assemblies of God, which was established in i9i4 to serve mostly white churches.
Also responding to the shifting contours of a rapidly changing America were Roman Catholics, especially in what came to be known as the Americanist' controversy. The flash point was the publication in 1897 of a French translation of a biography of Isaac Hecker (1819-88), an adult convert who had founded the Paulists as a preaching, educational and publishing order designed especially for reaching other Americans. Attention to this book exacerbated an ongoing debate in the American hierarchy between those who favoured as much accommodation to American ways as possible and conservatives who wanted to protect American Catholics from the corrosion of democracy.
The upshot from a tangle of intra-American and European-American contentions was a pair of documents from Pope Leo XIII. In 1895, an encyclical, Longinqua Oceani, praised American Catholics for heroic efforts on behalf ofthe church, but also warned them about too easily accepting American notions like the separation of church and state as universal norms. This letter was followed in 1899 by an encyclical, Testem Benevolentiae, which condemned Americanism' by name as the mistaken desire for the church to conform to the shape of liberal, individualistic culture. American reactions were mixed, with some conservative bishops hailing the vindication of their cause, while other leaders of the American church like James Cardinal Gibbons (1834-1921) of Baltimore remained unfazed. Gibbons agreed that it was wrong to change the church's faith but avowed that teaching such as the pope condemned was not permitted in the American church.
Unlike their Protestant contemporaries, Catholics did not have a tradition of proprietary ownership ofAmerican culture. But with all American believers at the start of the twentieth century, they realised that intentional effort was now required to sustain historical Christianity - whether Catholic, Protestant or
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