demands of polyphony. It was a situation exacerbated by Motu Proprio which, in attempting to stem the secular musical practices of many Italian churches, forbade women to sing in church choirs, much to the chagrin of more liberal Catholic organists such as Konrad Swertz (Cork), who resigned and emigrated to the USA in disgust.

In France, church music experienced a major hiatus after the Revolution in 1789. Since 1725, under the aegis of Philidor's concerts spirituels, Parisians were familiar with hearing church music performed outside church, and much elaborate church music in the form of the 'grand motet' had become a fashionable feature of concert-going. By the Revolution there is evidence that interest in this genre of sacred music was already in decline, and a more dramatic form of church music, influenced by oratorio, was in the ascendant and led by Jean-Francois Le Sueur, the director of the choir of Notre-Dame Cathedral between 1786 and 1787. Le Sueur's innovations were censured by the cathedral chapter and he was dismissed, but his appointment later as director of the Tuileries Chapel under Napoleon meant that his ideas could be reintroduced. After the Revolution the choir schools (the maƮtrises) were abolished and there followed a period of silence for almost twelve years, until the concordat of July 1801, when little or no sacred music was composed or sung publicly. After the signing of the concordat, Napoleon, as first consul, quickly resolved to continue the traditions of former French kings by establishing a chapel in the Tuileries. An admirer of Italian opera, notably the music of Paisiello and Cimarosa, he appointed the Neapolitan composer Paisiello as his new musical director of the chapel. Extremely well paid in his new post and the envy of his jealous French contemporaries, Paisiello composed large quantities of church music for his employer including masses and motets, but failed to succeed at the Grand Opera, where his own brand of Italian opera seria conflicted with the emerging new operatic styles of Mehul, Le Sueur, Cherubini and Spontini. Disenchanted with his artistic predicament in Paris, Paisiello left France in the spring of 1804, having already composed a lavish setting of the Te Deum for Napoleon's coronation in the following December. He was succeeded by Le Sueur, who remained in place until 1830, sharing the position with J. P. E. Martini after the Restoration of the Bourbons in 1816 and with Cherubini after Martini's death in 1816. The Tuileries Chapel was unquestionably the most important focus of French church music for the first thirty years of the nineteenth century, and its surviving payrolls bear witness to an ever-increasing number of singers and instrumentalists and a lavish repertoire of masses, funeral music, settings of the Stabat Mater and other miscellaneous pieces, not only by their directors but also by Plantade, Gossec, Martini, Zingarelli,

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