1856, one of a series of Eastern Catholic synods of the epoch at which Latin pressure sought to impose liturgical uniformity and Latinisation. Flourishing French Jesuit institutions served the Maronites in Lebanon: the College of Ghazir, established in 1847, moved to Beirut in 1875 to become the renowned Universite Saint-Joseph (1881).


The Chaldean Catholic Church,19 divided anomalously under two chief hier-archs, was united in 1830 under one patriarch, John VIII Hormizd (1830-8), resident in Mosul.20 His second successor, Joseph VI Audo (1848-78), one of the intrepid Eastern Catholic anti-infallibilists at Vatican I, had grave dissensions with Rome, chiefly because of the Mellus schism in India (see India below). Calm returned only under Audo's successor Elias Peter II Abulyonan (1878-94). Under Patriarch Emmanuel II Thomas (1900-47) numerous Assyrians passed to the Chaldean church, including two bishops and several other clergy. In the massacres attending the dissolution of the Ottoman empire, four Chaldean bishops, numerous priests and some 70,000 faithful perished.


The nascent Syro-Antiochene Catholic Church,21 recognised by the Porte in 1830, expanded steadily under notable leaders like patriarchs Ignatius-Peter VII Jarhweh (1828-51) and Anthony Samhairy (1851-66). Tensions were inevitable, since this growth was at the expense of the Orthodox mother church, including the passage of one patriarch, eight bishops, and most ofthe faithful of entire dioceses to the Catholic communion. The Synod of Sharfeh in 1888 introduced the inevitable ill-considered Latinisations like clerical celibacy. Patriarch Ignatius Ephrem II Rahmani (1898-1929), a vigorous, creative patriarch and renowned Syriac scholar, gave this church an international visibility disproportionate to its modest size. This community, too, suffered in the Turkish massacres of about 1,500,000 Christians in Upper Mesopotamia in the aftermath of World War I.

Bulgarians and Macedonians

The movement in Bulgaria for union with Rome arose in 1859-60 from the struggle among the Bulgarian Orthodox for emancipation from the

19 Le Coz, l'église d'orient; Janin, Les églises orientales, pp. 422-4.

20 Habbi, 'L'unification de la hiérarchie chaldéene'.

21 Janin, Les eglises orientales, pp. 387-9.

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