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an older social order, and that he did not, in the manner of liberal Catholics, welcome that element in liberalism which was, as Pius VII had recognised, an outgrowth of Christianity itself.

Meanwhile, great international gatherings of priests and bishops in Rome, for the canonisation of the Japanese martyrs in 1862 and for the eighteenth centenary of the martyrdoms of St Peter and St Paul in 1867, were the preliminaries to the Ecumenical Council opened in 1869. About a third of the prelates attending were Italian, with large blocs from the Spanish-speaking states, the great majority of them Ultramontanes. The Council set the seal on the triumph of the Holy See over the church by declaring the pope infallible in matters of faith and morals, in a repudiation of all the forms of Gallicanism which had haunted Rome for centuries. The pope was a partisan for his own position - he remarked that 'I am tradition' - and some eighty prelates, mostly from northern Europe, declined to vote for the final form of the decree, in Pastor Aeternus, although only two voted against it. The concomitant definition on papal jurisdiction over the whole church was also far reaching, and the withdrawal of the European states from control of the church during the next half-century made it realisable. But the outbreak in 1870 of the Franco-Prussian war caused the departure of the French garrison from Rome and its occupation by Italy, and with the loss of French protection the Council dispersed with its business incomplete, while the pope retreated from his city as 'the prisoner of the Vatican', to rule a new empire of the spirit.

European liberal reaction to Vatican I was hostile. Italy remained partly estranged for a generation. The pope repudiated the Law of Guarantees in 1871, in which the Italian government unilaterally offered him an annual payment, a measure of freedom for the Italian church from the state and protection for the curia and for the exercise of its spiritual authority, in return for a settlement of the Roman Question. The Law operated in a quasi-official manner in spite of conflict over the state's confirmation of episcopal appointments and further seizures of church and monastic property, especially in Rome itself. One of Pio Nono's last anxieties was that his despoiler Victor Emmanuel II should die with the rites of the church. Austria repudiated its concordat, while in the new predominantly Protestant German Reich formed in 1871 after the Prussian defeat of France and the fall of Napoleon III in 1870, the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, launched a persecution of Catholicism called the Kulturkampf or 'culture struggle' in Prussia from 1872 which was copied in a number of German states, though the persecution of the clergy only strengthened the pre-existing impressive solidarity of German Catholicism. A small number of educated middle-class Catholics in Germany and Switzerland, who rejected

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