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wild behaviour and some sexual promiscuity. In the early nineteenth century there was a concerted effort by evangelical clergy in the Church of Scotland to rein in the traditional celebrations and make them much more parochial occasions.34 Consequently the notion of reform in religion, which characterised all churches in all countries in rather different ways, is somewhat ambiguous. The increased number of clergy, usually more systematically trained, tended not to be sympathetic to traditional customs, and sought to eliminate them. An English example would be the removal of the village singers from many parish churches, and their replacement by boys' choirs, often in surplices. This often meant refurnishing the chancels of parish churches with choir stalls (modelled on cathedral or collegiate churches), which was presented as restoration but was actually innovation. The revival of church music in Germany and Sweden in the first half of the nineteenth century parallels that in England, and also drew on fifteenth- and sixteenth-century precedents; most of all there was a rediscovery of the music of Bach.35

Particularly among Protestants there was a change in the pattern of congregational worship. Whereas in the Roman Catholic Church the weekly celebration of mass remained the norm (though the extent of preaching varied), among Anglicans and some other Protestants there was a shift away from the post-Reformation pattern of celebrating Holy Communion only three or four times a year. Evangelicals introduced monthly communions in the early nineteenth century, and the weekly communion later appeared in many places under the influence of the Oxford Movement, even though it tended to be at 8.00 a.m. and did not usually displace Mattins as the normal morning service.36 A new liturgy was introduced in Sweden in 1811, and in Bavaria (including the Palatinate) in 1818. The new liturgy of the Evangelical Union Church in Prussia in 1822 exposed the liturgical diversity which already existed: it was revised in 1856 and 1895.37 By contrast with the Church of England, where suggestions for any modification of the Book of Common Prayer were suspect in the nineteenth century, in Germany and Sweden liturgical revision was not only possible but took place; and several revisions moved in a more Catholic direction. In some parts of Germany any liturgical reform was resisted or regarded with suspicion - Silesia, Thuringia and Saxony, for example - and in other parts the new liturgies did not penetrate rural parishes. Franconian Bavaria, especially the University of Erlangen, provided the

34 Schmidt, Holy fairs, pp. 192-212.

35 Hope, German and Scandinavian Protestantism, pp. 420-7.

36 Davies, Worship and theology in England, vol. m, pp. 223-7.

37 Hope, German and Scandinavian Protestantism, pp. 293-4, 344-5, 347, 351-3.

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