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with Dwane catalysed tremendous growth in the Cape Colony, Orange Free State and Transvaal. A cultural aside is that it was Mankayi Enoch Sontonga (c. 1873-1905), a product of the Lovedale Institution and member of Mzimba's African Presbyterian Church, who composed the famous song 'Nkosi Sikelel' i-Afrika' in 1897. This has become the theme song of African liberation, forms the national anthem of Zambia and Zimbabwe, and has been incorporated into the national anthem of South Africa.

Collectively, these men rejected the racism, insults, control, and European cultural and religious domination that frequently overshadowed the evangelical spirit in the missionary enterprise. They harped on the themes of a non-denominational African Christianity; self-expression; political and ecclesiastical freedom and interethnic mobilisation. Dwane's antiwhite rhetoric may have been strident but there was something inexplicable that galled Africans in this period. This can be well illustrated by the case of John Chilembwe's exit from white tutelage in Nyasaland (modern Malawi). Like Mzimba and Domingo, Chilembwe (c. 1871-1915) was nurtured by a loving missionary who placed much hope on his loyalty. Joseph Booth of the Zambezi Industrial Mission raised him from the position of a cook to status as a son and put him in a black college in West Virginia. Chilembwe returned in 1900 to Nyasaland a changed person and founded the Providence Industrial Mission at Chiradzu which was supervised by an African-American Baptist missionary through its first six years. His preference for ebony kinship frightened the whites, even though they had no sympathy for Booth, who was later deported. Chilembwe's resort to violence in 1915 was only one of seven cases that stoked white scares about Ethiopianism between 1906 (the last Zulu Bambata rebellion) and 1927. African-American churches were blamed as the external agitators of African unrest until the Watch Tower challenge to civil polity (led in Nyasaland by Booth's former protege Elliot Kamwana) became the dread of white politics in southern Africa between 1909 and 1915. Indeed, white fears severely throttled the African-American missionary impulse. The underlying reasons for the tense socio-political environment in the period were the political restructuring and creation of the Union in 1910, the increased alienation of land from the indigenes, and the decline of the status of educated blacks, who responded by forming the South African Native National Council in 1912 and sent a delegation to London to protest against the South Africa Native Land Act of 1913. Though some Ethiopians were involved, a political force took over control. Even in the United States, black nationalism took a political colour as Garveyism and the United Negro Improvement Association captured the centre stage.

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