Catholics and Protestants in Ireland, in the war between the Catholic and Protestant cantons in Switzerland, and in the Kulturkampf in Protestant Prussia, which attempted and failed to place Catholicism under strict regulation by the state. The most extraordinary expression of such conflict was the 'pillarisa-tion' of nineteenth-century Dutch society, in which Calvinists, both moderate and conservative, Catholics and secular socialists could live entirely separate lives in institutions which only met at the leadership level for negotiation with one another.

A tendency accompanying conflict and competition among the churches in old Europe, even in some Protestant countries, was the development of a higher doctrine of church, ministry and sacrament, partly in a strengthening ofclerical elites against the tendency by governments to invade the traditional province ofestablished churches in family matters and education. The reaction was strongest in the Catholic Church, where the expropriation of ecclesiastical property began in the suppression ofthe Society of Jesus in 1773 and the reforms of the Emperor Joseph II, and resulted in the nationalisation of all French religious property in 1790, the suppression of the ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire and, for a time, Napoleon's seizure of the Papal States themselves. The papal reaction to the whole revolutionary tradition and to the subsequent Risorgimento to create a united Italy which annexed the States of the Church inspired the new or neo-Ultramontane movement to elevate the claims of the pope to govern the whole church, leading to the definition of papal infallibility in matters of faith and morals at the First Vatican Council of 1869-70. Neo-Ultramontanism prevailed in the Catholic churches of the Mediterranean and Latin America, in opposition to liberal anticlericalism, as the hierarchies and clergy of Italy, Iberia, Latin America and even Gallican France increasingly looked to Rome for inspiration and salvation from an antiChristian state. Again, part ofthe reaction lay in a powerful revival oftraditional devotions partly sustained by new apparitions of the Blessed Virgin to children and female visionaries, as the church reaffirmed the power of the miraculous and the supernatural to men who did not believe. This devotional movement was far more than the response of authority to political challenge, as spirituality has its own energies and reflected more immediate and domestic concerns as well as feminisation, but Pope Pius IX himself saw an intimate connection between his definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1854 and the Syllabus of Errors in which he condemned 'progress, liberalism and modern civilisation', again on the feast of the Immaculate Conception, exactly ten years later to the day. A striking example of this new stress upon clerical authority and the new ardour of devotion occurred in the Church of England in

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