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milieu. Rather, the main challenge to Jews' Germanness in the Kaiserreich came from Protestant circles, from high-profile pastors like Adolf Stoecker and from integralist nationalist organisations like the Pan-German League.

When war broke out in early August 1914, Kaiser Wilhelm II urged his subjects to defend the fatherland 'without difference of race or religion'. In one stroke, he sought to set aside the divisions that almost forty years of exclusivist, Protestant nationalism had sown. Nevertheless, the speech left little doubt that Germany would still fight the war as a Christian nation. 'Following the example of our fathers, staunch and true ... humble before God, but with the joy of battle in the face of the enemy, we trust in the Almighty to strengthen our defence and guide us to good issue.'6 It was this image of a Christian Germany that chaplains and ministers, at home and at the front, repeated and maintained down to the end of the conflict - and of the Kaiserreich -in 1918.

6 Verhandlungen des Reichstags, no. 1, 4 August 1914, pp. 1-2.

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