for an 'ideal' church music with little or no instrumental participation gave rise to the establishment of Caecilian-Bundnisse (Cecilian Leagues) in Munich, Passau and Vienna as well as in other cities in Bavaria and Austria, and found endorsement in Pope Benedict XIV's encyclical of 1749, later pronouncements by Leo XII in 1824 and Pius VIII in 1830, and most notably Pope Pius X's Motu Proprio in 1903, which, besides giving final enfranchisement to Cecilianism, intended to proscribe perceived aberrant practices in countries such as Italy. The aesthetic principles of a 'true church music' had begun to emerge in the writings of Herder, J. F. Reichardt, K. A. von Mastiaux, Friedrich and August Wilhelm von Schlegel and J. A. P. Schulz, whose ideas chimed with the Fuxian stile antico ('the Palestrina style') of composers such as C. P. E. Bach and especially Michael Haydn. The latter, in his sacred works, demonstrated a singular enthusiasm for archaic musical techniques including canon, fugue, imitation, use of cantus firmi, and much effective yet practicably accessible homophonic writing (particularly in the Gradual settings). These works not only made him popular within the nineteenth-century Catholic Church but also ensured his reputation (which, sadly, has not endured to the same extent as his brother's in the province of secular music).

Michael Haydn's sacred output drew the approbation of E. T. A. Hoffmann, whose Alte und neue Kirchenmusik (1814) proved to be influential on the Cecil-ians along with A. F. J. Thibaut's widely read Uber Reinheit der Tonkunst (1825) and Sailer's Von dem Bunde der Religion mit derKunst (1839). The Cecilian movement sought to re-create a style of sacred music that was equal to the purity, devotion and 'unworldliness' of Palestrina, a composer who enjoyed iconic status among Catholic reformers. Palestrina's pre-eminence was given further impetus by the Italian musicologist and one-time choir member of the papal chapel Giuseppe Baini, who produced an historical study of the composer (1828). In F. S. Kandler's translation, published posthumously and edited by R. G. Kiesewetter (who himself produced a study of the Netherlands composers), Baini's book was widely disseminated and contributed significantly to the extraordinary escalation of Palestrina's standing throughout Europe, not least through the popularity of his Stabat Mater and Missa Papae Marcelli as concert works. Other important literary and scholarly works followed, with Winterfeld's biography in 1834, Bellerman's theoretical treatise in 1862 and A. W Ambros's informative commentary in volume iv of his Geschichte der Musik (1878); Parry included him in his Studies of great composers (1887) and Hans Pfitzner painted a romanticised picture of the composer in his opera, Palestrina, of 1915. As for Palestrina's music, Baini's editions (begun in 1841 and completed by Alfieri in 1846) in the Raccolta di musica sacra were superseded

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