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significant in encouraging this Maori renaissance. Te Aute College Students' Association, which became the Young Maori Party, influenced a generation of Maori leadership. Outstanding among its many leaders was Sir Apirana Ngata, a double graduate in law and arts, who became a member of parliament and an influential politician. An Anglican, Ngata was active in church affairs and worked tirelessly for his people and the renewal of Maori culture.

Denominational trajectories

The hopes of Henry Venn that the Anglican Maori church would become autonomous and independent under Maori leadership were undermined as the settler church became more dominant. Anglican settlers at first found themselves in an anomalous situation in New Zealand. Coming from an establishment context in England they had to adjust to a place in which no churches were established by law. Selwyn pioneered synodical government with his clergy in 1844 and 1847. After years of discussion Selwyn in 1857 called a constitutional convention which set up the church on the basis of a 'voluntary compact'. The constitution recognised 'fundamental provisions' which included the Book of Common Prayer. A general synod was constituted, which included all diocesan bishops, and established that representative clergy and laity from the dioceses should meet triennially. Dioceses under their own bishops held annual synods. For its time this was an innovative response to the needs of church government in a colonial society. Increasingly as the CMS missionaries aged and died out the Maori church was assimilated within the church structures. While Maori clergy were ordained from 1853 they were given little opportunity to exercise leadership within these structures, despite calls for a Maori bishop and representation.

The first Catholic missionaries and priests in New Zealand were Marists. Their important pioneering missionary work in the northern part of the country was undermined as a result of a dispute between Bishop Pompallier and the leader of their French order, Jean-Claude Colin. In 1850 Pompallier's diocese was divided and all the Marists were transferred to the new Wellington diocese under Bishop Philippe Viard. It was not until the 1880s that sustained Catholic work among Maori in the north resumed under the Mill Hill Fathers. Pompallier brought Sisters of Mercy from Ireland in 1850, the first of a number of women's religious orders. They made important contributions in the areas of education and social work. Outstanding among the women religious was Susanne Aubert, a Frenchwoman who initially worked in Auckland in the 1860s among Maori. She transferred to Hawkes Bay and then to the Wanganui River in 1883, where she set up her Daughters of our Lady of Compassion in 1892,

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