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The dynamics of religious revival in Britain came from Germany, through the pietism associated with the University of Halle at the end of the seventeenth century and the growth of the Moravians in the mid-eighteenth century. Both pietists and Moravians also exercised significant influence at the Prussian court in the early nineteenth century. But the influence went beyond the court. In the Reformed parishes of the Lower Rhine and Westphalia there was a significant pastoral awakening in the 1820s, especially in Elberfeld and Barmen. G. D. Krummacher (1774-1837) and his son F. W Krummacher (1796-1868) filled their churches in Elberfeld, Ruhrort and Barmen on Sundays and weekdays, with extensive distribution of Bibles and tracts. A similar movement was found in Pomerania and Lutheran provinces east of the Elbe.39

Revivalism in Scandinavia was lay in origin. In eastern Jutland and western Norway there was a rural lay movement from the 1790s which converted several thousand. Hans Nielsen Hauge (1771-1824) was a popular Norwegian lay preacher. In Copenhagen the Bible Society was founded in 1814 by a Scot, Ebenezer Henderson (1784-1858). By the 1830s this became a national religious revival, which linked with Danish and Norwegian cultural nationalism, though the rural awakening was rather different from the pattern followed by liberal townspeople.40 In Sweden a similar movement was represented initially by the Readers, who read religious tracts in house groups, again inspired by pietism and the Moravians. They were involved in mission work in the far north of Sweden. Methodism was established in Stockholm by George Scott, an Edinburgh-born preacher in 1830, and subsequently led by Carl O. Ros-enius (1816-68), some of whose followers later formed the Swedish Covenant Church. Hence in Sweden some of those influenced by revival remained within the established Lutheran Church, but others in effect left.41 The Swedish state church lost influence in the more divided villages and towns, and the new free churches acquired a distinctive social character; in some of the growing towns this reflected the social differences between different housing areas. Methodists and Baptists doubled their numbers in the 1880s and, with the other free churches, continued to grow until about 1930.42

Freedom of religion did not exist in Denmark before the adoption of the Danish constitution in 1849; all inhabitants had to belong to the Lutheran Church in order to qualify as citizens. The new constitution turned the state

41 On Rosenius, see p. 348 below.

42 Scott, Sweden, pp. 355-61, 573; Samuelsson, From great power to welfare state, pp. 168-70, 182-4.

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