the consequence of human sin - had entered the world long before the fall of man.
The restitutionary exegesis - just as the concordist one - was not new; it had been approvingly discussed by eighteenth-century theosophists and attained a strong following during the 1820s and 1830s among nature philosophers of the school of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854). Henrik Steffens (1773-1845), for example, in his Anthropologie (1822), imaginatively combined it with the 'day-age' interpretation. The notion of restitution accommodated the dualism, demonology and Satanology of their developmental view of the world in which constructive forces appeared interlocked with destructive, and the 'tohu wabohu' of Genesis 1 verse 2 referred to one of a series of ruinous upheavals through which the earth had passed in a struggle between good and evil.19
The 'gap interpretation' gave geology all the time it needed and a literal interpretation of the Genesis days of creation was left intact. Noah's deluge might well have been a historical event, but had left no appreciable geological traces. The last global cataclysm had taken place just before the human world was created. This exegesis seemed corroborated by Cuvier's observation that human fossil bones do not occur, and by Buckland's failed attempt to find human remnants in prehistoric, diluvial deposits. Yet a further reconciliatory adjustment became necessary when by the end of the 1850s the discovery of primitive tools made of chipped flint mingled with the bones of extinct Pleistocene mammals made it undeniable that humans had been contemporaneous with extinct mammals and, as the Scottish geologist Charles Lyell (1797-1875) showed in his Geological evidences of the antiquity of Man (1863), were of much greater age than allowed for by traditional biblical chronology.20
The third and least literal exegesis was the idealist, which stated that the creation days represent 'moments' rather than consecutive periods: 'the six days do not signify six consecutive periods but six moments of God's creative activity which can be logically distinguished from one another, six divine thoughts or ideas realized in the creation'.21 The hexaemeron did not represent a chronology of events, the creation days were neither actual days nor periods but a logical list of aspects of divine creation - the sequence was ideal,
19 Otto Zockler, Geschichte der Beziehungen zwischen Theologie und Naturwissenschaft: mit besondrer Rücksicht auf Schöpfungsgeschichte, 2 vols. (Gütersloh: C. Bertelsmann, 1877-79), vol. 11, pp. 516-29.
20 Riper, Men among the mammoths.
21 F. H. Reusch, Nature and the Bible, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Clark, 1886), vol. ii,p. 356.
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