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and the Near East, Karl Rhenius in south India and Karl Pfander in north-west India, all bear witness to the deep impact of continental piety and learning on the evangelical Anglican missionary tradition. It is no accident that the second and most distinguished of the holders of the Anglo-Prussian Jerusalem bishopric was Samuel Gobat, product of the Swiss Réveil, student in the Basel Mission seminary, and former CMS missionary in Egypt and Abyssinia. By the 1850s, the link between the CMS and the Basel Mission was weakening, the victim of hardening national sentiments and the new suspicion of Lutheran orders instilled in Anglicans by the Oxford Movement. Henry Venn, the influential secretary of the CMS from 1841 to 1872, filled the gap to an extent by engaging in regular transatlantic correspondence with Rufus Anderson, foreign secretary of the (largely Congregationalist) American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM, 1810), but this American connection was never more than a personal one. By the 1870s, the horizons of the CMS were more narrowly, and dangerously, confined by English perspectives than at any time in its previous history.

Baptists and Methodists provide a contrasting model ofmissionary internationalism in that their transatlantic connections were always stronger than their inter-European ones. Although the BMS had a Dutch auxiliary and recruited a few missionaries from the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia, there was no natural constituency in early nineteenth-century Europe for the support of Baptist missions. Baptist work in Germany and later in Russia and eastern Europe was itself a product of the nineteenth-century Erweckung, associated particularly with J. G. Oncken. Oncken was engaged in 1835 as a missionary to his native Germany by the second foreign missionary agency formed by American Protestants, the Triennial Convention (1814), known from 1845 as the American Baptist Missionary Union (ABMU). The first corresponding secretary ofthe Convention was an Englishman, William Staughton of Philadelphia, who had been one of the founders of the BMS with William Carey at Kettering in 1792. Links between the BMS and the ABMU remained strong throughout this period. The 1845 schism over slave-owning that split the swelling ranks of American Baptists between North and South reinforced the ties between Baptists in the northern states and in England, but isolated the Southern Baptist Convention, whose Foreign Mission Board was to grow into the largest of all Protestant mission agencies.

That the Methodist pattern exhibits some similarity to the Baptist one may appear surprising in view of the indebtedness of Methodism to the Moravian tradition. The register of missionaries serving with the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society (WMMS) is the most uniformly Anglophone

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