attracts the visitor is the reredos covering the east wall. All Saints is one of the key buildings of the century, enhancing London with reminiscences of the brick churches of north Germany and the chromatic splendour of Assisi, but habituating them to a Victorian urban context. Butterfield created similarly challenging polychromatic effects in the interiors of his church of All Saints at Babbacombe in Devon (1865-74) and in the chapel of his Keble College at Oxford (1867-83). He designed two further striking London churches, both for Anglo-Catholic worship. St Alban's, Holborn (1856-62) was largely destroyed in the Second World War while the interior of St Augustine's, Queen's Gate, Kensington (1870-7) was whitewashed in the 1920s, its original colour scheme having proved offensive to the refined sensibilities of the period. His compact, but splendidly picturesque Cathedral of the Isles with its adjacent College of the Holy Spirit at Millport, Great Cumbrae, in Scotland (1849-51) stands in contrast to his more restrained design for the Anglican cathedral in Melbourne, Australia (1878-86). Butterfield's delight in the potential of red brick banded with black was shared by George Edmund Street in the design of his fine church of St James-the-Less, Westminster (1859-61). It too is grouped with a school, but its most striking exterior feature is its campanile tower. Although much of the detailing is derived from French and Italian sources, the effect of the church's original interior is of massy richness, enhanced by a remarkable series of fittings (most notably its pulpit and its domed font-cover). Street, the author of Brick and marble architecture in the Middle Ages (1855), was determined that the architecture of the Gothic Revival could be invigorated by knowledge of continental, rather than exclusively English, precedent. His taste for Early French Gothic (which the Victorians sometimes called 'muscular') is evident in his fine churches of SS. Philip andJames in Oxford (1858-66) and the more compact All Saints, Denstone, in Staffordshire (1860-2). The influence of northern Italian Gothic is clear in the two Anglican churches he designed for Rome, both in the striped or banded manner of Siena Cathedral: All Saints (1882) and the more sumptuous American church of St Paul in the Via Nazionale (1879). The apse of the latter is decorated with a particularly striking mosaic by Edward Burne-Jones. The first major church designed by John Lough-borough Pearson, the beautifully proportioned St Peter's, Vauxhall (1859-65), is, like Street's work, based on Early French models. What make it remarkable are its noble stone and brick vault and round apse. Pearson's skill as a designer of vaults marks all of his best churches. St Augustine's, Kilburn (1870-7) is perhaps his finest. Its soaring spire, based on the stone steeples of north-western Normandy, was only completed in 1898, whilst the high
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