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in coming.38 On 29 January, the pope summoned Audo to his quarters and made him subscribe to the dispositions of the bull Reversurus severely limiting the traditional autonomy of the Eastern hierarchies. On 19 May, the Melkite patriarch Gregory Il's intervention in defence of the traditional eastern patriarchal system of government created a sensation. Attacked on all sides and deeply offended by the way Pius IX had manifested his displeasure, Gregory II took the floor again on 14 June to defend himself and to reiterate his views.

Leo XIII and the 1893 Eucharistic Congress of Jerusalem The profound divisions in the Catholic East manifested at Vatican I could no longer be ignored, and the election of Leo XIII (1878-1903), who was to become known as 'the pope of the Christian East', marked the beginnings of the emancipation of the Eastern Catholic churches.39 A report on 11 April 1883 by Vanutelli, apostolic delegate at Constantinople, outlined the grave Latin failures in dealing with the Catholic East. Preparations for the 1893 Eucharistic Congress of Jerusalem brought things to a head. Cardinal Langenieux, archbishop of Rheims, was Pope Leo's cardinal-legate for relations with the Eastern hierarchies in view of the upcoming congress. His courageous and far-seeing report of 2 July 1893 denounced in unvarnished terms the problems caused by the Latin missionaries' assault on the East, and stressed the need for a radically new policy.

Leo XIII took swift and decisive action. The encyclical Praeclara Gratulationis of 20 June 1894 was followed in the autumn by frank discussions in the Vatican where the Eastern Catholic patriarchs were encouraged to express their griefs freely, without the fear of reprisals that reigned under the repressive Pius IX. Swiftly thereafter came Leo XIII's historic encyclical Orientalium Dignitas, dated 30 November 1894, rightly called the 'Magna Carta' of Eastern Catholicism.

Leo XIII's decisiveness stimulated a series of new initiatives: the founding at Kadikoy (Chalcedon) of a centre, seminary and journal, Les Echos d'Orient (1897-1942), by the Assumptionists, whose massive accomplishments in mission and scholarship were astounding; the founding of the Catholic reviews Revue de l'Orient Chretien (1896-1946) in Paris, Bessarione (1896-1923) and Roma e l'Oriente (1910-21) in Italy, and in Germany the still existing Oriens Christianus (1901-). And the pontificate of Pius X (1903-14) witnessed the Roman celebrations surrounding the fifteenth centenary of the death of St John Chrysostom in 1907.

38 On Pius IX and the Eastern Catholic churches, see Patelos, Vatican I.

39 Soetens, Le Congr├ęs eucharistique; Esposito, Leone XIII, pp. 367-84; Hajjar, Les chr├ętiens uniates, pp. 309-11.

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