whose study of Schütz, Gabrieli and Lotti profoundly influenced his a cappella motets (notably the Fest- und Gedenksprüche Op. 109), while his Lutheran background in the chorale, combined with his worship of Bach, emerged in motets such as Es is das Heil Op. 29 No. 1 and Warum ist das Licht gegeben den Mühseligen Op. 74 No. 1.

The debate about 'ancient' and 'modern' emerged in the English theological and musical press during the 1830s and 1840s at a time when questions were being posed about the poor standards of choral singing of cathedral foundations, depleted numbers of boys, indisciplined men and restricted repertoire. Various reformist factors effected a transformation over the next thirty years, though it was from the parish and educational establishments, not the cathedral, that these reforms were led. Ecclesiastical reform, spearheaded by the Tractarian revival, ignited a huge improvement in standards of worship and greater emphasis was placed on externals such as choir demeanour, dress and attendance. In fact the greatest enthusiasts for reform came from the Ecclesi-ologists, who believed in a return to plainchant, the 'motet' style, new works composed in a sixteenth- and seventeenth-century manner and the general avoidance of contemporary church music. Examples of this more polemic reaction could be seen at Margaret Chapel (later All Saints, Margaret Street) and St Mark's College, Chelsea under Thomas Helmore.7 For most parishes and collegiate institutions with musical aspirations (and latterly cathedrals), there was much less enthusiasm for chant and 'old' music; rather there was a desire to see higher standards in singing, musicianship and the composition of new liturgical works. In this regard, the appointments of E. J. Hopkins at the Temple Church in London and T. A. Walmisley at Trinity College, Cambridge became a focus for change, as did E. G. Monk's choral services at Radley College, and Ouseley's self-financed establishment of St Michael's College, Tenbury, intended as a model of the cathedral ideal, was perhaps the most remarkable. The most strident cry from the cathedral quarter, however, came from S. S. Wesley with his tract A few words on cathedral music (1849) written in response to the suggestions by parliament that cathedral choirs should be downgraded even further.

The Cathedrals Commission of 1852 marked a sea-change for cathedral music in England, in that, after much stagnation and indifference, cathedrals became central to diocesan life and, with the impetus provided by many

7 See Zon, The English plainchant revival, and Adelmann, The contribution of Cambridge eccle-siologists.

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