their social teaching precisely because the truths contained in the encyclicals could be known by human reason.

In the turbulent years that led to the loss of the Papal States, the popes were principally concerned to argue against those whom they regarded as responsible for the woes of the church. Thus Pius VII (1800-23), in his encyclical Diu Satis (1800), reminded such transgressors that all attempts made to overthrow the 'House of God' would be in vain.2 Leo XII (1823-9) argued against religious indifferentism in his Ubi Primum (1824) and Pius VIII (1829-30) promised to work against indifferentism in his first encyclical Traditi Humiliati (1829).3 In Cum Primum (1832), Gregory XVI (1831-46) came closer to social teaching in insisting on civil obedience to higher authority because all authority comes from God, and with another encyclical, Mirari Vos (1832), he set the stage for Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors. Gregory rejected the possibility of gaining salvation 'by the profession of any kind of religion so long as morality is maintained' and condemned those who held themselves free to publish any writing whatsoever. Lamennais's Paroles d'un croyant was rejected with fervour in Singulari Nos (1834). It was judged as 'small in size', but 'enormous in wickedness' because it threw all human and divine affairs 'into confusion'. Finally, Gregory's Commissum Divinitatis (1835), on the church and the state, denied the state's right to meddle in church affairs by attempting to control church teaching, its disciplinary laws, clerical formation and episcopal synods.4

In Qui Pluribus (1846), Pius IX (1846-78) condemned those who wanted to 'import the doctrine of human progress into the Catholic religion', deplored indifferentism and asserted that 'the unspeakable doctrine of Communism' would destroy all law, the structures of government, the possession of private property and, finally, human society itself.5 In Quanta Cura (1864), the pope stated that the source of contemporary errors was the rejection of right reason and of the natural law 'engraved by God in men's hearts'. He repeated the strictures on freedom of conscience in Mirari Vos, again condemned both communism and socialism and rejected the proposition that ecclesiastical power is not 'by divine right distinct from, and independent of, the civil power'. A mournful litany called the Syllabus of Errors was attached to Quanta Cura. The Syllabus detailed the church's rejection ofthose elements in modern society it regarded as baneful, principally the proposition that 'Moral laws lack Divine

2 Carlen, Thepapal encyclicals 1740-1878, p. 190.

5 ibid., pp. 278, 280. In his Nostis etNobiscum in 1849 Pius IX repeated the condemnation of socialism and communism. See p. 296 in the same volume.

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