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theological school. Growth in Protestant adherence continued until, as with the Roman Catholic Church, it was stymied when the Constitution and the Imperial Rescript on Education were promulgated.

The case ofUchimura Kanzo is symbolic ofthe problems facing all Japanese Christians in an era of rising nationalism. His refusal to bow before the Imperial Rescript at his school became a cause célebre, leading to an attack on his character by a leading nationalist scholar and the loss of his job. Although the rate of increase in the numbers of new Japanese adherents and pupils at Christian schools declined significantly after this time, Japanese Protestant Christians took a leading role in social issues and had an ethical influence beyond their actual numbers. Christians, such as Uchimura, led criticism of the Japanese government's two wars in Korea, the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-5 and the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5, while other Christians were responsible for the creation of the Social Democratic Party in 1901 and the first trade union in 1912. Most Japanese Christians, however, were more accepting oftheir government's military views, and were comfortable with the social circumstances around them.

Russian Orthodoxy

The Russian Orthodox Church in Japan was shaped largely by the mission policy of its first priest Father Nicholai who stressed the absolute separation of politics and mission work. He arrived in Hakodate on Hokkaido island in 1861 and was joined by Fr Anatolius in 1871. By 1875, the first Japanese priests, Frs Paul Sawabe and John Sakai had been ordained. Like all Christian groups, the Orthodox Church experienced growth until the 1890s, when rising nationalism hindered further growth - in this case especially fierce because of the overt geopolitical rivalry and military conflict with Russia. None the less, the cathedral was consecrated in Tokyo in 1891 and many theological works in Japanese were printed.

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