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with a Holy Spirit religion of power and ecstatic experience, shading at its dark edges into the syncretism of myalism and obeah sorcery. A BMS deputation in 1859-60 responded by vainly trying to reassert missionary tutelage, looking to more pastors from England and a longer period of collegiate pastoral training for Jamaicans to stop the rot. By the 1860s evangelical hopes for the regeneration of the children of Africa had shifted from the Caribbean to West Africa.

In other parts of the globe, missionary humanitarians were by the 1830s finding the progress of Christian transformation blocked by the hardening impact of European settlers and traders on indigenous peoples within or near the frontiers of British settlement, such as the Maori, or the Xhosa of the Cape Colony. The Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines was set up in 1836 in response to pressure from T. F. Buxton and the missionary lobby, to consider what measures should be adopted to secure for such peoples 'the due observance of Justice and the protection of their Rights; to promote the spread of Civilization among them, and to lead them to the peaceful and voluntary reception of the Christian Religion'.7 Witnesses to the Committee included the secretaries of the CMS, LMS and WMMS, and serving missionaries such as John Philip and William Shaw from the Cape Colony, William Yate from the CMS New Zealand mission, and John Williams of the LMS from the South Pacific. These witnesses were unanimous in their testimony that conversion to Christianity offered the only sure hope of eliminating 'savagery' and 'barbarism', a conclusion which pointed Buxton's Report firmly in the direction of seeing missions as the cement of a benevolent empire. Yet their evidence also revealed a growing sense among missionaries that pure evangelism might not be enough. Shaw, Yate and Williams all urged that the preaching of the word mustbe accompanied by a concurrent process of'civilisation', challenging the social and economic structures of 'heathen' societies by the introduction of the plough, the 'useful arts' and habits of'industry'.

Such testimony added weight to the thesis that John Philip had already advanced in his influential Researches in South Africa. The apparent indolence of the Khoi population, Philip argued, was not to be attributed to any intrinsic defect in the African race. Rather 'we are all born savages' and are all naturally indolent. The continuing improvidence of the Khoi was the product of their status as virtual slaves, deprived of an independent economic base and the freedom to sell their labour to the best market. Philip cited Adam Smith,

7 Report from the select committee on aborigines (British settlements) together with the minutes of evidence, appendix and index, Parliamentary Papers 1836, vii (538), p. iii.

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