politician. The scholar Elias Lonnrot (1802-84) expressed what it meant to be Finnish, when in 1835 he published Finland's national poem, Kalevala, which described the first Finns as a heroic, brave and wise people. Furthermore in the second part of the nineteenth century we find a close interaction between Finnish nationalism, the clergy and religious revivalism. For this reason some have considered Finnish religious and national revivalism to be two sides of the same coin.10 However, since there are two vernacular languages, Finnish and Swedish, the formula became 'one state, but two nations'.

In Norway the situation was complicated. Danish had been the official administrative and ecclesiastical language for centuries. Nationalist scholars, however, searched for the surviving remains of an Old Norwegian or Norse culture. They examined the dialects spoken in the rural regions of the country. The goal was to change the literary language from Danish into a more Norwegian style, or to construct a New Norwegian literary language on the basis of the rural dialects, one not 'polluted' by the Danish language. In 1869 a Norwegianised hymn book was introduced, but at the same time the first leaflet with hymns in New Norwegian was published. Gradually the Bible was translated into New Norwegian, and the hymns became popular, especially during the dramatic year of 1905. In 1908 New Norwegian was authorised as the liturgical language, but it remained a minority language.

During the nineteenth century, Scandinavia changed from unionism with two blocs to a separatist nationalism, creating a new pattern of nation-states that is called Norden. As a part of these changes the former Lutheran territorial churches became national and folk churches. At the same time religious unity was gradually superseded by freedom of religion and pluralism, a process in which religious revivalism played an important role. In these processes, the individuality of the Nordic churches was further developed, although the division between West- and East-Norden remained.

10 Eino Murtorinne, 'Den fennomanska rorelsen'.

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