Durante, Jomelli, Roze and Persuis.4 After the 1830 Revolution, however, Le Sueur and Cherubini were made redundant (as were their large retinue of musicians) by the new regime under the 'citizen king', Louis-Philippe, and though Napoleon III revived the Chapelle Royale, the music was never as flamboyant or spectacular.

Many of the large-scale works for Napoleon's chapel and the Chapelle Royale of Louis XVIII and Charles X were composed in an operatic and theatrical style largely devoid of counterpoint and the style sévère (the equivalent of the stile antico). Of varied quality, it nevertheless stood in stark contrast to the poor state of music in the cathedrals and parishes where little more than plainchant was sung. Some relief came with the restoration of a few maîtrises (such as the one at Notre-Dame) which proved to be the only significant agency of musical education during the Monarchy, but the church, impoverished after the Revolution and war, had only meagre funds to support music. Aware of this glaring deficiency, and in contradistinction to the musical trends set by the courts of the head of state, the composer, publisher and teacher Alexandre Choron took up the mantle of promoting sacred works by the Italian masters, and though publication of this music ultimately failed through lack of public subscription, Choron continued to pursue his interest in 'historical' music. After the Restoration he published his Collection des pieces de musique religieuse qui s'exécutent tous les ans a Rome durant la semaine sainte dans la Chapelle du Souverain Pontife (1820) which drew broadly on Burney's eponymous collection; it made available a range of Italian a cappella works to a French public largely unfamiliar with early church music, a familiarity reinforced by the performance of Renaissance and Baroque music by students of his own school, the Institution Royale de Musique Classique et Religieuse (opened in 1818). With lack of funds, however, Choron's school declined and it was only after public concern was expressed for the low standards of musical attainment in church that the French government agreed financially to support a reopening of the institution in 1853 as the Ecole Niedermeyer, named after its leader Louis Niedermeyer, a Swiss educationist and composer. The mission of Niedermeyer was to revitalise France's atrophying church music tradition and the maîtrises. Moreover, in addition to a basic education, pupils at the school were to gain a firm grounding in plainchant and its accompaniment, a broad knowledge of Palestrina, and, at the organ, a thorough understanding of the methods of J. S. Bach. Niedermeyer collaborated with Joseph d'Ortigue in the publication of his Traité theorique et pratique de l'accompagnement du plainchant (1857) in

4 See Mongredien, French music, pp. 162-87.

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