at the integration of new religious perspectives with modernity. Within this reformist tradition of theology, Zurich and Berne became the predominant centres. In Zurich, influenced by Schleiermacher and Hegel, the two systematic theologians Alexander Schweizer and Alois Emanuel Biedermann became the leaders. In 1871 liberal Protestant associations were united in the Schweizerischer Verein fur freies Christentum and, influenced by the liberal movement, a number of other social and pedagogical institutions were established, including the International Red Cross, founded by Henry Dunant in 1863. Between the two poles represented by the traditionalist and the reformist theologians, intermediary positions, such as that held by the Basel church historian Karl Rudolf Hagenbach, remained in a minority.13

Whereas mainstream liberal Protestantism found itself represented by political liberalism and integrated in the nation-state and its culture, the conservative Protestant minority time and again took a political stand against the new nation-state. The writer and pastor Jeremias Gotthelf belonged to this line of thought. After 1875 the Eidgenossische Verein mobilised Protestant conservatives, and in the canton of Berne the Protestant opposition movement was led by the Bernische Volkspartei of Ulrich D├╝rrenmatt. Conservative alliances for popular votes were not merged into a common party; different confessionally defined identities played a much more important role in the conservative movement than in the liberal-radical one. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, some individual conservative Protestant intellectuals, such as the Basel historian Jacob Burckhardt, remained prominent. Most ofthe members of the Protestant wing of conservatism now supported the liberal party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei), which had become more moderate. After World War I, some of the Berne conservatives joined the newly founded agrarian Bauern-, Gewerbe- and B├╝rgerpartei.14

The Catholic milieu

The confessionalisation of politics and the politicisation of religion were intensified by the increasingly Ultramontane and socially organised character of Catholicism. As a result of their interaction with modernity, new social forms of Catholicism as a sub-culture or socio-cultural milieu emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century.15

13 See Fatio, 'Auseinandersetzungen und Aufbrtiche', p. 237; Pfister, Kirchengeschichte.

14 See Altermatt, 'Conservatism in Switzerland'.

15 See Altermatt, Katholizismus und Moderne.

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