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Pius X, Pope 23-9 and canon law 24 and church music 124 and church and state 25-6 and France 26, 27-8, 231-2, 597 Lamentabili 28, 594 and liturgical reform 25 and Modernism 27-8, 594 Motu Proprio 123 and Netherlands 339 and Old Believers 415 Pascendi 28, 594 and Portugal 393 Reversurus 417, 419

and Uniate churches 416-17, 419, 420, 424 and Vatican reforms 24 plainchant 124,125,126,128,129,131,133 pluralism, religious in Britain 305, 307 in Scandinavia349,358 in United States 365 Plymouth Brethren 56,181, 558 Pocock, J. G. A. 32 poetry 139-41

Poland and Austria 274, 276, 278, 413 and Catholic nationalism 270-81 early twentieth century 280-1 and ethnic diversity 271-2 originality of Polish experience 271-2 and Prussia 274, 275, 276, 278 and religious orders 279-80 and resistance 273, 275-7 and Russia 273-4, 414 and secular elites 271, 272, 277-9 Polish-Lithuanian Federation 270, 271, 272

politics 163 African 591 African-American 439 Australian 549-50 Austrian 296-7 and Coleridge 41 conservative 200, 220, 224, 229 Dutch 161, 335,337, 340 and French church 223-8 German 294-5, 296 and Hungarian church 266 and Leo XII 234-5 and Leo XIII 20-2, 200, 229 liberal 221, 222, 223, 229, 236-7 and mission 449-50, 471 and Pius VII 233-4 and Pius IX 20, 235-49 and Pius X 26 radical 212

see also capitalism; democracy; liberalism; nationalism; social thought; socialism Pollard, John 23 Polynesia and France 554

and indigenous agency 552, 555 and mission 551-2 Pompallier, Bishop 557 populism, Catholic 20 Portugal 381-94

and church and state 381-94, 597 and colonies 399, 476, 480, 523 and Padroado Rial 479-82, 514, 563 and papacy 16, 387,389,394 and popular religion 200, 207-9, 391-2 and religious observance 389-90,392 and religious orders 101,390-1 rural Catholicism 389-90 and social action 392 positivism philosophical 211, 227 scientific 48, 278, 404

poverty in Catholic social thought 145,146,149,150, 152, 255

in Protestant social thought 154,156-8,162 Powell, Baden 174 pragmatism 35, 49-50 Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 118-19 predestination 55 prejudice, anti-Catholic 73 premillennialism 2, 4, 466-7, 561, 567, 578 Presbyterianism 56 in Australia 543 in Canada 374, 375 distribution 201 in Ireland 62-3,303, 314-16 and mission 436, 448, 452, 462, 486, 511,

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