participation and a compromise between Napoleonic and canon law, but the Romagna had been lay since 1800, and its more affluent citizens would never be happy again with government by priests. The politicani cardinals who supported Consalvi's reforms were outvoted in the conclave of 1823 by the zelanti who elected Consalvi's enemy, the conservative Annibale della Genga as Leo XII (1760-1829; ruled 1823-9). He abolished lay participation in the higher levels of government, banned the waltz at carnival and reopened the Jewish ghetto. Such conservatism drove opposition underground among the secret revolutionary brotherhood of carbonari or 'charcoal-burners', and there was a reaction in the conclave of 1829, when Consalvi's disciple Cardinal Albani worked to secure the election of the moderate Francesco Xaverio Castiglione, bishop of Montalto, who took the name Pius VIII (1761-1830; ruled 1829-30). He attempted, unsuccessfully, to reach a compromise with the Prussian government which wanted him to authorise mixed marriages in the Catholic Rhineland provinces it had acquired in i8i5, and after initial distress he recognised the July Monarchy established by the French revolution of 1830. Meanwhile a small but influential body of French Catholic Ultramontanes, led by Robert Felicite de Lamennais, demanded that the pope champion liberal reform. Indeed the third Catholic Relief Act in the United Kingdom in 1829, the union of Catholics and Liberals in Belgium in 1830 to overthrow the rule of Protestant Holland and the Polish rising against Russia in 1830-1, all indicated, despite the pope's reservations, that liberalism might sometimes be in the church's interests. Pius was, however, already ill with a neck abscess at his election, and after a pontificate of just over a year and a half, he died in November i830.
As the conservative Leo succeeded the moderate Pius VII and was followed by the moderate Pius VIII, so Pius was succeeded by the most conservative pope of the nineteenth century, the Camaldolese monk Bartolomeo (in religion Mauro) Cappellari who took the name Gregory XVI (1765-1846; ruled i83i-46). An inveterate snuff-taker - it gave rise to a facial tumour - Cap-pellari was a hale and vigorous old man, whose theology had always been strongly Ultramontane: hisbest-knownbookwas called The triumph of the Holy See (1799). On his election there was a rising in the Romagna which Austria crushed at the pope's request, leading the liberal government of Louis-Philippe in France, supported by England, to organise a Memorandum signed by the Roman ambassadors of the great powers demanding reforms in his administration. Gregory gave the rebels an amnesty which was followed by a further revolt and Austrian occupation. The three most famous liberal Catholics of
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